Suggested materials – teachers should probably excerpt for younger students. In three days, you will not have time for all of the sources. Make excerpts from a variety of sources or choose a few that appeal to you.
- Clifford, Clark with Richard Holbrooke. President Truman’s Decision to Recognize Israel.1991.Think
Israel. May June 2011. http://www.think-israel.org/clifford.trumanrecognizesisrael.html
- Department of State to Harry S. Truman. May 11, 1948. Summary of their position on trusteeship. Harry S. Truman Library and Museum. http://www.trumanlibrary.org/whistlestop/study_collections/israel/large/documents/newPDF/3-25.pdf#zoom=100
- Draft of recognition of the State of Israel. May 14, 1948. Harry S. Truman Library and Museum. http://www.trumanlibrary.org/whistlestop/study_collections/israel/large/documents/newPDF/48.pdf - zoom=100
- Jacobson, Eddie. Letter from Eddie Jacobson to Josef Cohen describing his role in persuading President Truman to meet with Dr. C. Weismann. April 1, 1952. http://www.trumanlibrary.org/whistlestop/study_collections/israel/large/documents/newPDF/23.pdf#zoom=100
- Memo of conversation with Dean Rusk. May 8, 1948. Harry S. Truman Library and Museum. Showing the State Departments Point of View. 2 pages
- Memo supporting a Statement by Truman recognizing Israel, May 9, 1948 (8 pages) Harry S. Truman Library and Museum. http://www.trumanlibrary.org/whistlestop/study_collections/israel/large/documents/newPDF/3-14.pdf - zoom=100
- Audio: “Truman discussing how Eddie Jacobson persuaded him to see Dr. Chaim Weizmann and his decision to recognize Israel. (MP2002-304) “ (03:56) The Recognition of the State of Israel. Harry S. Truman Library and Museum. (http://www.trumanlibrary.org/whistlestop/study_collections/israel/large/index.php?action=or
Israeli – Palestinian Conflict - Background – Primary and Secondary Sources
Excerpt from “The Jewish State and Jewish Problem”
In the West, in lands of emancipation, their material condition is not particularly bad, but the moral trouble is serious: They want to take full advantage of their rights, and cannot; they long to become attached to the people of the country, and to take part in its social life, and they are kept at arm's length; they strive after love and brotherhood, and are met by looks of hatred and contempt on all sides; conscious that they are not inferior to their neighbors in any kind of ability or virtue, they have it continually thrown in their teeth that they are an inferior type, and are not fit to rise to the same level as the Aryans. … In order to escape from all these troubles it is necessary to establish a Jewish State.
1897 – Ahad Ha’am
Ha’am, A. “The Jewish State and the Jewish Problem.” Jewish Virtual Library. The American Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. 2013. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Zionism/haam2.html
How does the quote above show a motivation for many Jews to want a Jewish State?
The 1937 summary report of the Palestine Royal Commission (aka the Peel Commission) conducted at the request of the British Government, contained the following:
"Under the stress of the [First] World War the British Government made promises to Arabs and Jews in order to obtain their support. On the strength of those promises both parties formed certain expectations... An irrepressible conflict has arisen between two national communities within the narrow bounds of one small country. There is no common ground between them. Their national aspirations are incompatible. The Arabs desire to revive the traditions of the Arab golden age. The Jews desire to show what they can achieve when restored to the land in which the Jewish nation was born. Neither of the two national ideals permits of combination in the service of a single State.
The conflict has grown steadily more bitter since 1920 and the process will continue. Conditions inside Palestine especially the systems of education, are strengthening the national sentiment of the two peoples. The bigger and more prosperous they grow the greater will be their political ambitions, and the conflict is aggravated by the uncertainty of the future. Who in the end will govern Palestine?"
1937 Peel Commission Report
Don Peretz, PhD, Professor Emeritus Political Science at the State University of New York at Binghamton, in his 1996 book The Arab-Israel Dispute, wrote:
"Tensions began after the first Zionist settlers arrived in the 1880s. Quarrels broke out between the new settlers and neighboring villages over grazing, crop and other land issues. Disputes also arose when Jewish settlers purchased land from absentee Arab owners, leading to dispossession of the peasants who cultivated it. As the number of Jewish settlements increased and as Arabs became aware of the Zionist intention to establish a Jewish homeland, opposition to the movement spread among the fellahin [peasants], urban notables, intellectuals and the merchant class. The lack of familiarity of the European settlers with traditional Arab customs often stirred conflict. At times, there were armed altercations between Jewish farmers and Arab herdsmen when the former interfered with cattle or flocks that strayed onto Jewish cultivated areas. One of the first clashes occurred at Peta Tikva, the oldest Jewish colony, established in 1878. When the settlers denied grazing rights to the neighboring Arab village, its inhabitants attacked the colony. The fear of peasant dispossession became a central issue in Arab nationalism."
1996 - Don Peretz, Ph.D.
Samih K. Farsoun, PhD, Professor of Sociology at American University, in his 1997 book Palestine and Palestinians, wrote the following:
"Palestinian discontent with the new British order [mandate] arose in April 1920 on the occasion of the Nabi Musa festival. A minor incident led to an assault by Palestinians on a procession of Jews. Although it was investigated by a British-appointed commission, the commission's recommendations were not published. Riots also occurred on May Day 1921 in a charged Palestinian and regional political climate: Arab discontentment with the results of the San Remo (Allied) conference, which awarded the eastern Arab mandates to Britain and France, led to political tension in Palestine, Syria, and Lebanon and a revolt in Iraq.
In Palestine mass Jewish immigration commenced in accordance with the British policy of establishing a Jewish national home. Palestinians perceived the arrival of 10,000 Jewish immigrants between December 1920 and April 1921 as a harbinger of the future. A riot that started in Jaffa between radical leftist and centrist Zionist groups quickly involved the Palestinians, who also attacked the immigration hostel, a symbolic target of their hostility. Forty-eight Palestinians and forty-seven Jews were killed and 219 people wounded. From Jaffa, Palestinian rioting spread to rural areas, fueled by wild rumors of Jews killing Arabs. Several Palestinians were killed by British soldiers in an effort to defend Jewish settlement.”
“Israeli-Palestinian Conflict.” ProCon.org. 2013. http://israelipalestinian.procon.org/