Harry S. Truman Presidential Library & Museum

The Holocaust: Resistance Movements
Jill McComas
World History
Time Frame:
six lessons
Nazi Germany
World War II

Grade Levels:

Classroom/Homework Activity to be performed:

This six-session lesson is part of a three week integrated unit of study. At the heart of the unit is the Newbery Award winning novel Number the Stars by Lois Lowry which students read during language arts. Students participate in a variety of activities related to the novel. Number the Stars is an excellent book to use for introducing the Holocaust to sixth graders. It is an emotionally charged book that realistically portrays the fears and tensions experienced by the Jews and their rescuers. By reading and discussing the book, students are able to explore the value of friendships, the impact of prejudice, the acts of courage, and how historical events affect people and cultures.

In order to help students understand more about the historical setting, they study the historical background of the Holocaust in social studies. Emphasis is placed on research and study of Resistance movements in various countries during World War II. The study of the various resistance movements offers students the opportunity to compare and contrast how individuals, groups, and countries worked to save Jews from deportation and death. By using a combination of print resources and selected Web Sites, students learn to use appropriate search strategies to find information.

Since students will participate in an in depth study of the Holocaust during eighth grade, this sixth grade unit is designed to be a brief introduction focusing on a specific perspective.

District, state, or national performance and knowledge standards/goals/skills met:

Show-Me Standards Covered:
Goal 1 Students in Missouri public schools will acquire the knowledge and skills to
gather, analyze and apply information and ideas.
Students will demonstrate within and integrate across all content areas the
ability to:

2. conduct research to answer questions and evaluate information and ideas

4. use technological tools and other resources to locate, select and organize information

8. organize data, information and ideas into useful forms (includingcharts, graphs, outlines) for analysis or presentation

Goal 2 Students in Missouri public schools will acquire the knowledge and skills to communicate effectively within and beyond the classroom. Students will demonstratewithin and integrate across all content areas the ability to:

1. plan and make written, oral and visual presentations for a variety of purposes and audiences

Goal 4: Students in Missouri public schools will acquire the knowledge and skills to make decisions and act as responsible members of society. Students will demonstrate withinand integrate across all content areas the ability to:

1. analyze the duties and responsibilities of individuals in societies

Communication Arts: In Communication Arts, students in Missouri public schools will acquire a solid foundation which includes knowledge of and proficiency in

4. writing formally (such as reports, narratives, essays) and informally (such as outlines, notes)

6. participating in formal and informal presentations and discussions of issues and ideas

Social Studies:
In Social Studies, students in Missouri public schools will acquire a solid foundation
which includes knowledge of

6. relationships of the individual and groups to institutions and cultural traditions

Kansas Standards

Benchmark 3: The student uses a working knowledge and understanding of individuals, groups, ideas, developments, and turning points of the Era of World War (1914-1945).

3. (A) examines the nature of totalitarianism in fascist Germany and communist Soviet Union (e.g., one party rule; systematic violation of human rights, secret police, state supremacy over individual rights, role of private property, class structure).

4. (A) analyzes the causes and immediate consequences of WWII (e.g., German, Italian, and Japanese aggression; failure of the League of Nations; appeasement; development of American, British-Soviet alliance; Holocaust; Nanjing; introduction of nuclear weapons; war crime trials).

Benchmark 2: The student writes expository text using the writing process.

2. Clearly defines the main idea by selecting relevant, logical details that meet the reader’s informational needs. (Ideas and Content: prewriting, drafting, revising: (N,E,T,P)

3. Selects and uses (1) personal experience (2) personal observations (3) prior knowledge (4) research to meet the reader’s needs and to create appropriate point of view. (Ideas and Content: prewriting, drafting, revising: (N,E,T,P)

4. Expresses information in own words using appropriate organization, grammar, word choice, and tone sufficient to the audience. (Ideas and Content: prewriting, drafting, revising: (N,E,T,P)

5. Analyzes and understands implications and consequences of plagiarism (e.g. ethical, legal, and professional). (Ideas and Content: prewriting, drafting, revising: (N,E,T,P)

8. Understands and independently uses appropriate strategies to generate expository text (e.g. brainstorming, listing, webbing, working in pairs or in cooperative groups and identifying information from print sources). (Organization: prewriting: (N,E,T,P)

9. Writes a complete piece that contains a clear introduction, reasonable body, and satisfying conclusion. (Organization: prewriting, drafting, revising: (N,E,T,P)

10. Arranges information within each paragraph in logical order (typically 4-6 sentences). (Organization: prewriting, drafting, revising: (N,E,T,P)

Technology Required:

Students will use print resources gathered from the school library media center and Mid Continent Public Library. Students will use the computers in the library media center to access the Internet. Two computer stations will have the CD-ROM Survivors: Testimonies of the Holocaust published by Steven Spielberg and Survivors of the Shoah Visual History Foundation available for students to use.

Full description of activity or assignment.

Preparation for the Learning Adventure:

Teacher Collaboration and Planning: The library media specialist, language arts teacher,and social studies teacher will meet prior to the introduction of the unit. They will develop a timeschedule for class work to be done in language arts, social studies, and the library media center. Each teacher will be responsible for activities related to his/her subject. The library media specialist will gather print resources, develop worksheets for research.

Field trip: The library media specialist will make arrangements with the Midwest Centerfor Holocaust Education (5801 West 1 15th St., Suite 106, Overland Park, KS (913) 327-8190)for all sixth grade students to attend the I Witness program. During this program students will view the documentary video The Holocaust: Through Our Own Eyes and hear personal accounts by local Holocaust survivors or a child of survivors.

Evaluation: At the end of the unit, the teachers will evaluate all activities, time schedules,and student interest and participation. Teachers will make recommendations for changes and improvements for the following year.

Scope of Student Work:

(Class Period = 45 minutes.)

Class Period 1 (Social Studies Classroom):

- Classroom teacher will give background information of Resistance movementsduring the Holocaust and relate this information to the events in Number the Stars.

- Students will divide into teams of two.

- Each team will select an individual, group, or country from a list prepared by the teacher.

Class Periods 2 & 3 (Library Media Center):

- Library media specialist will give students a list of specific Web Sites which students may use to search for information.

- Teams will use print resources and Internet Web Sites to research their subject.

- Teams will search and take notes for the following information:

- Name of person, group, or country
- Develop list of vocabulary words and their definitions
- Key people, places, and events in this specific Resistancemovement
- Political climate in country
- Methods of rescue used
- Number of Jews or other victims helped by rescue efforts
- Personal accounts of rescuers or people rescued (attachment)

Class Period 4 (Classroom):

- Teams meet to organize information.Each team member is responsible for developing written account of required information and creating a time line of events on a 12"xl8" piece of construction paper.

- Teams analyze the duties and responsibilities that rescuers assumed in their efforts.

Class Period 5 (Classroom):

- Sharing groups are formed with one member from each team.

- Students share information about their subject.

- Groups compare and contrast the Resistance movements.

Class Period 6 (Classroom):

- Class meets together.

- Post time lines on bulletin board.

- Discuss application of rescuers' actions to students' responsibilities inschool, home, and community setting.

- Discuss impact of prejudice, bullying, and scapegoating on the victim and the perpetrator.

- Evaluate research process--What did students learn? What would they do differently next time they research? What resources were most helpful?

Full explanation of the assessment method and/or scoring guide:

Assessment and Reflection:

The classroom teacher and library media specialist will evaluate student's work on an individual basis.

- The following activities (with maximum points) are included in the evaluation:

- Written account of research findings (25 points)
- Vocabulary and definition list (20 points)
- Time line (20 points)
- Participation in team, group, and class discussions (20 points)
- Effective use of class time (15 points)

The students will reflect on the research activity and write a one-page summary of theirexperience with the research process, group work, and individual presentation.

The Holocaust: Resistance Movements - Internet Web Sites Handout

(The following Web Sites have accurate and reliable information on the resistance movements during the Holocaust. If you cannot find the information you need, please ask for assistance.)

The Holocaust: Resistance Movements Research Worksheet

1. Name of person, group, or country.

2. List key people, places, and events in this specific Resistance movement.

3. What was the political climate in the country?

4. Describe the methods of rescue used by the Resistance movement.

5. How many Jews or other victims were helped by the rescue efforts?

6. Summarize the personal accounts of rescuers or people rescued.

7. Make a list of vocabulary words on a separate sheet of paper that you find in your research related to the Holocaust. Define the words.

8. Make a list on a separate sheet of paper of all the resources you used in your research.

The Holocaust: Resistance Movements Evaluation

Quality = 5 Satisfactory = 4 Acceptable = 3 Needs Improvement = 2 Unacceptable = 1

Written Account:
- Includes allnecessary information. 5 4 3 2 1
- Demonstrates understanding of subject. 5 4 3 2 1
- Usedgood sentence structure. 5 4 3 2 1
- Paper is neat. 5 4 3 2 1
- Completed on time. 5 4 3 2 1
Vocabulary and Definition List:
- Includes a minimum of 12 words/definitions. 5 4 3 2 1
- Definitions are correct. 5 4 3 2 1
- Paper is neat. 5 4 3 2 1
- Completed on time. 5 4 3 2 1
Time Line:
- Includes all importantevents. 5 4 3 2 1
- Events are labeled properly. 5 4 3 2 1
- Paper is neat. 5 4 3 2 1
- Completed on time. 5 4 3 2 1
- Worked for good of group. 5 4 3 2 1
- Showed respect for others in group/class. 5 4 3 2 1
- Presented information in clear manner. 5 4 3 2 1
- Demonstrated understanding of subject. 5 4 3 2 1
Use of Time:
- Stayedontask. 5 4 3 2 ]
- Treated materials/equipment/facility with respect 5 4 3 2 1
- Used technological tools effectively. 5 4 3 2 1