Harry S. Truman Presidential Library & Museum


The Korean War through the Perspectives of Political Cartoons and Political Posters
Author:
Michael Young
Course:
U.S. History and World History
Time Frame:
Three 45 minute classroom meetings
Subjects:
Symbols
,
Cold War

Grade Levels:
9, 10, 11, 12

Classroom/Homework Activity to be performed:
  • Students will analyze political cartoons and political posters via individual and cooperative learning activities
  • Students will do research of pertinent Internet websites that provide different perspectives of the Korea War via political cartoons and political posters
  • Students will utilize primary sources (political cartoons and political posters)

Rationale:

To assist students in developing skills that will enable them to analyze political cartoons and political posters and develop an understanding of the different perspectives of the Korea War

District, state, or national performance and knowledge standards/goals/skills met:


Omaha, NE  Public Schools Modern World History Standards:

Standard 04: Explain how certain cultural characteristics such as language, ethnic heritage,

        religion, political philosophies, shared history, and social and economic systems can

        link or divide regions, and cause global conflict (1920 – present).

             Analyze various global conflicts of the 20th century: World War II and The Cold War

 National United States History Standards for Grades 5-12

Standard 2: The student comprehends a variety of historical sources:

Standard 3: The causes and course of World War II, the character of the war at home and

       abroad, and its reshaping of the U.S. role in world affairs 

Standard 4: The Causes and Global Consequences of World War II

Thinking Standard 3: The student engages in historical analysis and interpretation:

Thinking Standard 4: The student conducts historical research:

Thinking Standard 5: The student engages in historical issues-analysis and decision-making

National World History Standards:

 A Half-Century of Crisis and Achievement, 1900-1945 

Standard 4: The Causes and global consequences of World War II

Standard 5A: The student understands major global trends from 1900 to the end of World War II. 

The 20th Century Since 1945:  Promises and Paradoxes 

Standard 1B: The student understands why global power shifts took place and the Cold War broke out in the aftermath of World War II. 

Explain the causes and international and local consequences of major Cold War crises, such as the Korean War

Standard 1C: The student understands how African, Asian, and Caribbean peoples achieved independence from European colonial rule 

Standard 2B: The student understands how increasing economic interdependence has transformed human society. 

Explain the emergence of the Pacific Rim economy and analyze how such countries as South Korea has achieved economic growth in recent decades. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships] 

 

SHOW ME STANDARDS

2. Continuity and change in the history of Missouri, the United States and the world

6. Relationships of the individual and groups to institutions and cultural traditions

7. The use of tools of social science inquiry (such as surveys, statistics, maps, documents)

KANSAS STANDARDS (High School-US History)

Benchmark 3: The student uses a working knowledge and understanding of individuals, groups, ideas, developments, and turning points in the era of the Cold War (1945-1990).

3. (A) evaluates the foreign policies of Truman and Eisenhower during the Cold War (e.g., establishment of the United Nations, containment, NATO, Truman Doctrine, Berlin Blockade, Korean War, Iron Curtain, U-2 incident).

Benchmark 5: The student engages in historical thinking skills.

1. (A) analyzes a theme in United States history to explain patterns of continuity and change over time.

2. (A) develops historical questions on a specific topic in United States history and analyzes the evidence in primary source documents to speculate on the answers.

3. (A) uses primary and secondary sources about an event in U.S. history to develop a credible interpretation of the event, evaluating on its meaning (e.g., uses provided primary and secondary sources to interpret a historical-based conclusion). 

Benchmark 5: The student engages in historical thinking skills.

1. (A) analyzes a theme in United States history to explain patterns of continuity and change over time.

2. (A) develops historical questions on a specific topic in United States history and analyzes the evidence in primary source documents to speculate on the answers.

3. (A) uses primary and secondary sources about an event in U.S. history to develop a credible interpretation of the event, evaluating on its meaning (e.g., uses provided primary and secondary sources to interpret a historical-based conclusion).

Secondary materials (book, article, video documentary, etc.) needed:

Books:

 

CIA.  Baptism by Fire.  Korean War.   (Contains CD). 

 

Lee, Ki-baik, Eckert, Carter J., Lew, Young Ick, Robinson, Michael, and Wagner, Edward W.

            Korea Old  and New A History.  Seoul, Korea: Ilch;okak, Publishers, 1990.

 

Lindaman, Dana and Ward, Kyle.  History Lessons.  How textbooks from Around the

World Portray U.S. History [Excellent section on the Korean War, Korea and

nuclear weapons and the Pueblo Incident]. New York: The New Press, 2004

 

Blair Jr., Clay.  The Forgotten War: America in Korea, 1950-1953.

            Naval Institute Press. March 31, 2003.

 

Casey, Alexandria E. and Michael S. Casey.  Teaching the Korean War: An Instructor’s        Handbook. Kansas  City, Missouri: Pelsmith-Monroe, LLC, 2003.

 

Halberstam, David.  The Coldest Winter. American and the Korean War.

 

Hess, Gary R.  Presidential Decisions for War.  2nd ed. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins U. Press,        2009.

 

Newspapers:

 

The Korean Herald [English language’

http://www.koreaherald.com/

           

 

Internet

 

Cagle, Daryl. Pro Cartoonists Index Home Page. [North Korea and more nukes. Series of

political cartoons]

http://www.cagle.msnbc.com/news/NorthKorea09/main.asp

 

Cagle, Daryl.  Pro Cartoonists Index Home page [Political cartoons of So. Korea]

            http://www.politicalcartoons.com/search.aspx?cmd=4&mode=Advanced&query=south+korea&from=1%2f1%2f2000&to=6%2f5%2f2009&artist=&type=0

http://www.cagle.msnbc.com/news/NorthKorea09/main.asp

 

Center for Korean Studies. [ Extensive links to sources related to Korea]

           http://www.hawaii.edu/korea/

 

Cold War.  Korea and other countries involved in the Cold War.  [Excellent links to

Korea and a wide variety of other details related to the Cold War]

            http://www.teacheroz.com/coldwar.htm

 

Country Studies.  South Korea.  Library of  Congress

            http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/krtoc.html

 

Edwards, Paul   An Annotated Bibliography of the Korean War

http://books.google.com/books?id=OFp8ipPu5g0C&dq=national+archives++Korea+war&printsec=frontcover&source=in&hl=en&ei=gIn4SZbVEcaHtge-w-jBDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=11

 

Eisenhower Library.  Korea War

http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/Research/Digital_Documents/korea/koreawar.html

 

Ex POW from Nebraska

            http://www.ex-pownebraska.org/onemansstory.html

 

Historycentral.com Korean History

http://historycentral.com/NationbyNation/Korea/Links.html

 

Historycentral.com The Korean War

            http://historycentral.com/korea/index.html

 

National History Education Clearinghouse Lesson Plans. [Do a search for lessons on

Korea and several links are listed]

     http://teachinghistory.org/

North Korea.  Official website

            http://www.korea-dpr.com/

 

Teaching with Documents.  The Korean War lesson plan.  National Archives

            http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/korean-conflict/

 

The Korean Society [Excellent source for links to lesson plans and historical and

current information on Korea]

            http://www.koreasociety.org/

The Korean Society.  Lesson Plans on the Korea War

            http://www.koreasociety.org/korean_war/view_category.html

Primary materials (book, article, video documentary, etc.) needed:

California Literary Review. Photo Essay: North Korean Propaganda Posters   http://calitreview.com/875

 

Communist North Korean War Leaflets.

            http://www.psywarrior.com/NKoreaH.html

 

Internet Modern History Sourcebook.  Korean War

            http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook47.html

 

               http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook47.html#The%20Korean%20War

 

Irvin Dugan.  Cartoonist

            http://www.tahg.org/module_display.php?mod_id=184&review=yes

 

Korean War FAQ [Discussions of the various aspects of the Korean War, many from the

Chinese perspective]

            http://www.state.gov/www/about_state/history/volume_vi/exchanges.html

 

Korean War Records.  National Archives and Records Administration

            http://www.archives.gov/research/korean-war/

 

Soviet View of the Korean War

           http://www.korean-war.com/ussr.html

 

The Korean War [Multitude of links to documents on the Korea War]

            http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/korea/korea.htm

 

The Korean War Through Chinese Eyes

http://www.defence.gov.au/army/AHU/docs/The_Korean_War_1950_1953_McLeod.pdf

 

The Opper Project  Cold War Conflict in Korea: 'The Powerful and Powerless United

            Nations'.  [Section that includes political cartoons)

            http://hti.osu.edu/opper

Truman Library. 2010 Summer Teachers Conference America at War: 1950-2010
Examining Presidential Decision Making in Crisis

            http://www.trumanlibrary.org/educ/america_at_war.html

Technology Required:

access to internet

Full description of activity or assignment.

1. Discuss with students the key characteristics of political cartoons and political posters.  Have student first read the Opper Project description located at http://hti.osu.edu/opper/editorial-cartoons or provide them with a hard copy of the material.

 

2. Provide students with a copy of the political cartoon Handout A or via a power point presentation. 

 

3. Allow students to view the political cartoon and then initiate an oral discussion of the political cartoon.  Engage students in a discussion of the political cartoon using the National Archives political cartoon analysis worksheet Handout B as a model for analyzing a political cartoon. 

.

4. Distribute a hard copy of political poster Handout C to the students or include in a power point presentation. Instruct students to analyze the poster for 5 minutes and then engage them in an oral discussion of the poster using the following questions to spark the discussion:

a. What symbols are used?

b. Are any countries being identified?  How are they identified?

c. What is a protractor?  How is it being depicted in the poster?

d. What country is the author of the poster from?  How do you know?

e. What would be a possible caption for the poster?

f. Share with students that the caption for the poster is “The U.S. Is Truly an Axis of Evil”

g. What does the caption suggest about the U.S?

h. Ask student if they have ever heard a U.S. President refer to other countries as being part of an axis of Evil?  In what context?

 

5. Assign four groups of students (cooperative learning strategy) to analyze one of the political posters cartoons related to the Korean War (other than the Handout C political poster) located at  http://calitreview.com/875   Indicate to students they are to use Handout D as a guide for their analysis.  Instruct each group of students to select one representative from their group to share their analysis with the class.

 

6. Conclusion to the lesson.  The teacher can engage the students in a discussion of the lesson by using the following guided questions

 

1. How does national origin affect one’s perspective of the Korean War?

2. How might North and South Koreans view the causes/results  of the Korean War differently

            than Americans?

3. What are the typical characteristics and symbols of effective political cartoons and political

       posters?  

4. Which political cartoons and/or political posters were most effective and why?

 

 

 

                                                          Handout A

 

Irvin Dugan. Political Cartoonist,

http://www.tahg.org/module_display.php?mod_id=184&review=yes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

      Handout B Cartoon Analysis Worksheet

Level 1

Visuals

Words (not all cartoons include words)

  1. List the objects or people you see in the cartoon.
  2. Identify the cartoon caption and/or title.
  3. Locate three words or phrases used by the cartoonist to identify objects or people within the cartoon.
  4. Record any important dates or numbers that appear in the cartoon.
 

Level 2

Visuals

Words

  1. Which of the objects on your list are symbols?
  2. What do you think each symbol means?
  3. Which words or phrases in the cartoon appear to be the most significant? Why do you think so?
  4. List adjectives that describe the emotions portrayed in the cartoon.
 

Level 3

  1. Describe the action taking place in the cartoon.
  2. Explain how the words in the cartoon clarify the symbols.
  3. Explain the message of the cartoon.
  4. What special interest groups would agree/disagree with the cartoon's message? Why?

National Archives.   http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/worksheets//

 

                                      Handout C

 

California Literary Review. Photo Essay: North Korean Propaganda Posters http://calitreview.com/875

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                Handout  D

 

                                      Poster Analysis Worksheet 

 

(Provide details for all answers)

 

  1. 1.     What are the main colors used in the poster?

 

  1. 2.     What symbols (if any) are used in the poster?

 

  1. 3.     If a symbol is used, is it:

 

  1. a.     Clear (easy to interpret)?
  2. b.    Memorable?
  3. c.      Dramatic

 

  1. 4.     Are the messages in the poster primarily visual, verbal, or both?

 

  1. 5.     Who do you think is the intended audience for the poster?

 

  1. 6.     What government is producing the poster and what does the government hope the audience will do?

 

  1. 7.     What government purpose(s) is served by the poster?

 

  1. 8.     The most effective posters use symbols that are unusual simple, and direct.  Is this an effective poster?

 

Designed and developed by the Education Staff, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC 20408 (with modifications).

          http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/

Full explanation of the assessment method and/or scoring guide:

 

 

1. Direct students to access the Opper Project  “Using Political Cartoons to Teach History” website  at

http://hti.osu.edu/opper/lesson-plans/cold-war-conflict-in-korea-the-powerful-and-powerless-united-nations   Indicate to students they are to select one of the political cartoons related to the United Nations and the Korean War and write an analysis of the political cartoons using the Opper Project Handout E 

 

2. Assign students to create their own political cartoon that relates to the Korean War. Provide students with  Handout  F “Rubric Standards for Political Cartoons Created by Students” and indicate to the students the grade they receive for their political cartoon will be based on the rubric.

                                      Handout E

The United Nations and the Korean War: Cartoon Analysis Worksheet

 

1. What is the cartoon’s title or caption?

 

2. Who drew the cartoon?

 

3. When and where was it published?

 

4. Editorial cartoonists combine pictures and words to communicate their opinions.    What tools does the cartoonist use to make his or her point?

            ___ Humor                             ___Labels                                   ___Caricature      

            ___Symbols                            ___Analogy to another event

            ___ Stereotypes                      ___ Speech balloons

            ___References to popular culture,   art, literature, etc.

 

5. What symbols and characters are included in this cartoon?

 

6. Describe briefly what is going on in the cartoon:

 

7. What is the cartoon’s message about the situation in Korea?

 

8. What if anything, does the cartoon have to say about the United Nations?

 

9. What, if anything, does the cartoon have to say about the PRC, USSR, or other

          belligerents?

 

10. Explain how the historical record agrees with or refutes the cartoonist’s    

          opinion.

 

The Opper Project. Cold War Conflict in Korea: 'The Powerful and Powerless United Nations.’   Using political cartoons to teach history.  

http://hti.osu.edu/sites/default/files/Korean_War_worksheet.pdf

Directions

Follows few if any directions

Follows directions with some accuracy

Follows directions with few exceptions

Follows all directions

Analysis/Inquiry:

Persuasive techniques used by the cartoonist i.e. symbolism, exaggeration, labeling, analogy, and irony

Identifies 0-1 persuasive techniques with no analysis

Identifies a minimum of two persuasive techniques, but little analysis

Identifies two or more persuasive techniques with some analysis

Identifies three or more persuasive techniques with excellent analysis

Knowledge:

Identification of the historical issue and/or personalities

Identifies the personalities and/or events pictured with limited accuracy

Identifies the personalities and events pictured with some accuracy

Identifies the personalities and events pictured with accuracy

Identifies the personalities and events pictured with a high degree of accuracy

Analysis/Inquiry:

Interprets cartoonist’s message (viewpoint)

Illustrates very limited critical analysis and insight in interpreting the message

Illustrates some critical analysis and insight in interpreting the message

Illustrates critical analysis and insight in interpreting the message

Illustrates a high degree of critical analysis and insight in interpreting the message

Communication:

Expresses ideas clearly

Ideas are expressed with limited clarity

Ideas are express with some clarity

Ideas are expressed clearly

Ideas are expressed with very clearly

Application:

Evaluates the effectiveness of the cartoonist conveying the intended message

 

Conclusions about the effectiveness of the cartoonist show limited logic

Conclusions about the effectiveness of the cartoon show some logic

Conclusions about the effectiveness of the cartoon are logical

Conclusions about the effectiveness of the cartoon are highly logical

 

                                                 Handout F

                        Rubric Standards for Political Cartoons Created by Students