Harry S. Truman Presidential Library & Museum

 endnote
 AirBridge to Berlin
 Road to Confrontation
 Who's Who During Big 4
 Political Activity Resumes
 Who's Who in New Berlin Governments
 Background on Conflict with USSR
 Eye of the Storm
 Marshall Plan
 The Airlift Begins
 Pilots
 Chocolate Flier
 Grateful Berliners
 Lighter Side (Cartoons)
 "Operation Vittles" Gets Organized
 Winter Campaign
 Blockade Lifted
 Aftermath 1949 -- 1959
 Photo Collection

 

Chapter 2: Road to Confrontation

1 Douglas Botting, From the Ruins of the Reich, (New York, Crown Publishers Inc., 1985), pp. 179-92 from data originally published in Documentation on the Expulsions of the German Population from East Central Europe (Bonn, West Germany, Federal Ministry for Expellees, Refugees and War Victims).

2 Wolfgang Leonhard, Die Revolution Entlaesst Ihre Kinder (Cologne, Germany, Verlag Kiepenhauer & Witsch, 1955)

3 Koppel Pinson, Modern Germany (New York, NY, Macmillan, 1954), p. 417

4 Leonhard, op. cit., pp. 380-391

5 Ibid., pp. 348-358

6 Ibid., pp. 389-390

7 Current Biography Yearbook, 1972, D. H. W. Wilson Co., New York, 1972

8 John H. Backer, Winds of History, The German Years of Lucius Dubignon Clay (New York, NY, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, Inc., 1983), p.87

9 Ibid., p.97

10 The Historical Encyclopedia of World War II (New York, NY, Facts on File, Inc., 1980), p. 291

11 Backer, Winds of History, op. cit., p.3

12 Ibid., p. 104

13 Avi Shlaim, The United States and the Berlin Blockage 1948-49 (Berkeley, California, University of California Press, 1983), pp. 99-100

15 Backer, Winds of History, op. cit., pp. 85-89

16 Ibid., pp. 89-90

17 Edward N. Peterson, The American Occupation of Germany, Retreat to Victory (Detroit, Michigan, Wayne State University Press, 1978), p. 119

18 Buhite, op. cit. pp. 32-37

19 Backer, The Decision to Divide Germany, op. cit., p. 89

20 Ibid., pp. 90-91

21 Ibid., pp. 93-95

22 Ibid., pp. 97-98

23 Ibid., pp. 97-99

24 Edward A. Tenenbaum, Military Government and Monetary Reform, Chapter 12 (Unpublished manuscript, Truman Library), p. 200

25 Report of the Military Governor # 1, August 1945, p.5

26 Jack Bennett, "The German Currency Reform". Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 267 (January 1950), p. 44

27 Tenenbaum, op. cit., p.201

28 Ibid., pp. 202-203

29 Ibid., pp. 206

30 Ibid., pp. 206

31 Ibid., pp. 209 *Robert Murphy stated the printing order was not placed until after the Council of Foreign Ministers meeting in London in December 1947 (Robert Marphy, Diplomat Among Warriors (Garden City, NY, Doubleday & Company, 1964), pp. 312-313

32 Leonhard, op. cit. pp. 425-426

33 SBZ von 1945 bis 1954, p. 29

34 Terence Prittie, Willy Brandt, Portrait of a Statesman (New York, NY, Schocken Books, 1974), p. 74

35 Ibid., p. 75

36 Walter Hammer Hohes Haus in Henkers Hand (Frankfurt/Main, Germany, Europaeische Verlangsanstalt, 1956), p. 84

37 Prittie, op. cit., p. 72

38 Murphy, op. cit., p. 211

39 Ibid., pp. 277-279

40 Backer, Winds of History, op. cit., p. 57

41 Delbert Clark as quoted in Backer, Ibid., pp. 87-88

42 Charles E. Bohlen The Transformation of American Foreign Policy New York, NY, W.W.Norton & Company, 1969), p.86

43 Ibid., pp. 87-88

44 Murphy, op. cit., p. 308

 

 

 

Chapter 3: Eye of the Storm

1 Clay, op. cit., p. 174

2 U.S. Department of State, Germany 1947-49: The Story in Documents (Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, 1950), p.12

3 Clay, op. cit., p. 176

4 Ibid., p. 176

5 Ibid., p. 178-79

6 Ibid., p. 350

7 Ibid., p. 394

8 Shlaim, op. cit., p. 34

9 Clay, op. cit., pp. 398-400

10 Ibid., pp. 408-412

11 Ibid., p. 349

12 Ibid., pp. 350-51

13 Davis, op. cit., p. 200

14 Clay, op. cit., pp. 355-56

15 Truman, Harry S., Memoirs, Volume II (Garden City, NY, Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1956), pp. 121-22

16 Smith, Jean Edward, editor, The Papers of General Lucius D. Clay: Germany, 1945 - 1949 (Bloomington, Indiana, Indiana Unviersity Press, 1974), Vol 2, pp. 600-606

17 Ibid., p. 607

18 Ibid., pp. 622-23

19 Shlaim, op. cit., pp. 137-38

20 Tenenbaum, op. cit., p.211

21 Bennett, op. cit., pp. 48-49

22 News of Germany # 133, June 17, 1948

23 Clay, Lucius D., Germany and the Fight for Freedom, (Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1950), p. 36

24 Taegliche Rundschau, May 30, 1948

25 Tenenbaum, op. cit., p. 206

26 Ibid., p. 210

27 Ibid., p. 209-10

28 Murphy, op. cit., p. 383

29 Shlaim, Avi, The United States and the Berlin Blockade, 1948- 1949 (Berkeley, California, Unviersity of California Press, 1983), pp. 151-56

30 Report of the Military Governor #36, June 1948, p. 2

31 Report of the Military Governor #37, July 1948, p. 1

32 Shlaim, op. cit., p. 157

33 Ibid., pp. 151-52

34 Tenenbaum, op. cit., p. 246

35 Ibid., pp. 247-48

36 Ibid., p. 249

37 Ibid., pp. 249-50 and Bennett, op. cit., pp. 51-52

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4: The Airlift Begins

1 Smith, op. cit., p. 622

2 Ibid., p. 677

3 Ibid., p. 692

4 Frank Howley, Berlin Command (NY, NY, G.P.Putnam's Sons, 1950), p.200

5 Shlaim, op. cit., p. 200

6 Smith, op. cit., pp. 699-704

7 Ibid., p. 697

8 Shlaim, op. cit., p. 202

9 Ibid., p. 203

10 Truman, Vol. 2, op. cit., p. 123

11 Shlaim, op. cit., p. 205

12 Smith, op. cit., pp. 707-08

13 Walter Millis, editor, The Forrestal Diaries (NY, NY Viking Press 1951), pp. 452-54

14 Shlaim, op. cit., p. 220

15 Ibid., p. 227

16 Department of State Bulletin, July 4, 1948, p. 54

17 Shlaim, op. cit., p. 233

18 Ibid., p. 252

19 Ibid., p. 262

20 National Security Council Minutes, July 22, 1948

21 New York Times, July 24, 1948

22 Documents on Germany, pp. 63-72

23 Ibid., pp. 63-72

24 A Special Study of Operation "Vittles", op. cit., p. 8

25 Berlin Airlift, A USAFE Summary, p. 16

26 A Special Study of Operation "Vittles", op. cit., pp. 54-58

27 The New York Herald Tribune, European Edition, July 12, 1948

28 Ibid

29 Richard Collier, Bridge Across the Sky, (NY, NY McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1978), p. 79

 

 

 

Chapter 5: "Vittles" Gets Organized

1 William H. Tunner, Over the Hump, (NY, NY, Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1964), p. 161

2 Curtis E. LeMay with MacKinlay Kantor, Mission with LeMay (Garden City, NY, Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1965) p. 416

3 Tunner, op. cit., p. 166

4 Ibid., pp. 167-68

5 Ibid., pp. 152-53

6 A Special Study of Operation "Vittles", op. cit., pp. 60-65

7 Shlaim, op. cit., pp. 337-41

8 Smith, op. cit., p. 763

9 Shlaim, op. cit., p. 309

10 Ibid., pp. 337-41

11 Ibid., pp. 747-48

12 Smith, op. cit., p. 747

13 SBZ von 1945-1954 (Bonn, West Germany, Bundesministerium fuer Gesamtdeutsche Fragen, 1956) p. 94

14 Ibid., p. 95; Clay, op. cit., p. 377

15 Report of the Military Governor No. 39, September 1948, Office of Military Government, Berlin

16 Smith, op. cit., pp. 844-45

17 Clay, op. cit., p. 377; Smith, op. cit., pp. 856- 57

18 Telegraf, dated September 9, 1948

19 SBZ von 1945-1954, op. cit., p. 95

20 Smith, op. cit., pp. 856-57

 

 

 

 

Chapter 6: The Winter Campaign

1 Tunner, op. cit., p. 205

2 Berlin Airlift, USAFE Summary, p. 29

3 A Four Year Report, Office of the Military Government, U.S. Sector, Berlin, July 1, 1945- September 1, 1949 (Berlin, Deutsche Verlag, 1949), p. 20

4 Ibid., p. 78

5 Collier, op. cit., pp. 84-86

6 A Four Year Report, op. cit., p. 20

 

7 Shlaim, op. cit., p. 366

8 Smith, op. cit., p. 986

 

 

 

 

Chapter 7: Blockade Lifted

1 Tunner, op. cit., pp. 221-22

2 Smith, op. cit., p. 860

3 Shlaim, op. cit., pp. 381-82

4 Ibid., p. 383

5 Ibid., pp. 384-85

6 Alan Bullock, Ernest Bevin, Foreign Secretary, 1945- 1951, NY & London, W.W.Norton & Company, 1983), p.669

7 Department of State Bulletin, May 15, 1949, p. 631

8 Smith, op. cit., pp. 1137-39

9 Ibid., pp. 1137-39

10 Airlift Berlin, (Berlin, Arani Verlag G.m.b.H., 1949) pp. 78-79

11 Ibid., p. 79

12 Ibid., p. 79

13 Paul Fisher, "The Berlin Airlift," The Bee-Hive, Volume XXIII, Number 4, Fall 1948, pp. 26-27

 

 

 

 

Chapter 8: Aftermath

1 Terence Pritte, Germany Divided, The Legacy of the Nazi Era (Boston, Mass, Little, Brown and Company, 1960) pp. 31-32

2 Eleanor Lansing Dulles, Berlin, The Wall is not Forever (Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press) p. 37

3 Ibid., pp 10-11

4 Ibid., p. 10-13

5 Pritte, op. cit., p. 16

6 Dulles, op. cit., p. 16

7 Victor Marchetti and John D. Marks, The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence (New York, Dell Publishing Co., 1974) p. 34

8 William Henry Chamberlin, The German Phoenix (New York, Duell, Sloan & Pearce, 1963) pp. 147-49

9 Ibid., p. 149

10 Hans Speier, Divided Berlin, The Anatomy of Soviet Political Blackmail (New York, Frederich A. Praeger, 1962) pp. 9-11

11 Ibid., pp. 65-66

12 Ibid., p. 95

13 Paul R. Viotti, Berlin and Conflict Management with the USSR, Orbis, Fall 1984, p. 588

14 Speier, op. cit., pp. 93-94

15 Norman Gelb, The Berlin Wall (New York, Times Books, 1986) p. 253

16 Gelb, op. cit., pp 257-58

17 Federal Republic of Germany, A Country Study, (Washington, DC, Department of the Army, 1983) p. 52

18 Ibid., p. 54

19 Ibid., pp. 53-54

20 Neil Hickey, "TV Is Opening up the Soviet Block Nations -- Whether They Like It Or Not," TV Guide, August 22, 1987, p. 7

21 Christine Toomey Wiebelskirchen, "Honecker Goes Over the Wall For Pomp and Home Cooking," The Sunday Time (London), September 6, 1987, p. 17