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Harry S. Truman
1945-1953


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Provided courtesy of The American Presidency Project.  John Woolley and Gerhard Peters. University of California, Santa Barbara.
  22. The President's News Conference  
May 2, 1945

THE PRESIDENT. First, I want to read you a couple of letters, which will be distributed as you
go out, so if I get a little too fast for you, why--

[1.] [Reading, not literally]: "My dear Mr. President: I hereby tender you my resignation as
Postmaster General1 to become effective at a time that best meets with your convenience.

1Frank C. Walker served from September 11, 1940, through June 30, 1945.

"I have in the stage of preparation a report of my stewardship, together with certain suggestions
concerning a reorganization of the Postal Department. This report will be completed within thirty
days. If agreeable to you, Mr. President, I would like to have the resignation made effective at
that time.

"The mantle of a great President has fallen upon you. Statesman and humanitarian, Franklin D.
Roosevelt had a heart which beat with true compassion for all who suffered or bore heavy
burdens. The Nation, so sorely bereft of his leadership, has found unity as well as strength and
courage in the pledge of faith which you gave to all the world in the address to the Congress in
joint session this afternoon.

"Franklin D. Roosevelt now takes his place with the great men of the ages. May his noble spirit
guide and inspire you as you take up the fight for the ideals in defense of which he gave all of his
strength, his very life.

"It remains for me only to add that I have full confidence in your leadership. Although I relinquish
public office, I am yours to command if ever I can be of service to you in the heavy tasks which
lie ahead."

And this is my reply.

[2.] [Reading, not literally]: "Dear Frank: I have learned in a very short time that the President of
the United States all too often has to act in ways that please others and which are very different
from the personal wishes and feelings of the President himself. Full realization of this is brought
home to me very forcibly by your request that I accept your resignation as Postmaster General.

"It goes without saying that your request is reluctantly and grudgingly granted, effective as of the
close of business on June 30, 1945. I must warn you, however, that I confidently expect to take
advantage of your offer to return to me whenever there is need of your services in the future.

"We sever only the official ties between us. The warm friendship and close association which has
been ours through many years goes on as before.

"The splendid service you have rendered your Country, and your Government, will long be
remembered by a grateful people. I count myself one of them, and thank you for your statement
of confidence in my Administration."

[3.] I am sending down to the Senate the nomination of Robert E. Hannegan, of Missouri, to be
Postmaster General, effective July 1, 1945.

Q. Sending it down tomorrow, probably?

THE PRESIDENT. It will go to Mr. Biffle this afternoon, who will present it to the
Senate tomorrow.

[4.] I nominate Mr. David E. Lilienthal, of Wisconsin, to be a member of the Board of Directors
of the Tennessee Valley Authority, for the term expiring 9 years after May 18, 1945. That will
go down at the same time as Mr. Hannegan's does.

[5.] I issued an Executive order today, appointing Mr. Justice Jackson to be the representative
of the United States--I will just read you this, this statement which I am issuing, which you will
also receive as you go out, in mimeographed form.

[Reading, not literally]: "At my request, Mr. Justice Robert H. Jackson, in addition to his duties
as Justice of the Supreme Court, has accepted designation as Chief of Counsel for the United
States in preparing and prosecuting charges of atrocities and war crimes against such of the
leaders of the European Axis powers, and their principal agents and accessories, as the United
States may agree with any of the United Nations to bring to trial before an international military
tribunal.

"Pursuant to the Moscow Declaration of November 1, 1943, all war criminals, against whom
there is a sufficient proof of personal participation in specific atrocities, are to be returned to the
countries where their crimes were committed, to be judged and punished by those countries
themselves. These cases are not involved in this assignment.

"There are left, however, the cases of other war criminals--particularly the major war criminals
and their principal agents and accessories, whose offenses have no particular geographical
localization.

"I hope and expect that an international military tribunal will soon be organized to try this second
category of war criminals. It will be Justice Jackson's responsibility to represent the United
States in preparing and presenting the case against these criminals before such military tribunal.

"Justice Jackson has assembled a staff from within the War, Navy, and other departments
concerned, which has already begun work, so that there will be no delay on the part of the
United States. It is desirable that preparation begin at once, even though details of the military
court are not yet determined.

"I have just signed an Executive order designating Justice Jackson to this post. He and his staff
will examine the evidence already gathered and being gathered by the United Nations War
Crimes Commission in London and by the various allied armies and other agencies; he will
arrange for assembling the necessary additional evidence. He will begin preparation for the trial.

"It is our objective to establish as soon as possible an international military tribunal; to provide a
trial procedure which will be expeditious in nature and which will permit no evasion or
delay--but one which is in keeping with our tradition of fairness towards those accused of crime.
Steps to carry this out are actively under way.

"Arguments in the Supreme Court for the current term will conclude this week, and the Court
has ordered adjournment on May 28th. It is hoped .that the trial of these war crimes cases will
have been completed next October when the Court reconvenes."

I am ready for questions! [Laughter]

[6.] Q. Mr. President, have the negotiations which the State Department just told us about,
being carried on by the Swedish Government and the German Government--have they broken
down completely?

THE PRESIDENT. I can't answer that.

[7.] Q. Mr. President, with reference here to Mr. Hannegan, your understanding is he will
continue as chairman of--National Chairman?

THE PRESIDENT. Yes.

[8.] Q. Mr. President, when you were Vice President, a CIO delegation asked you to help in
revising the Little Steel formula. You told them, somewhat firmly, that you were against upsetting
any formula that would put us into a spiral of inflation. Can you elaborate on that ?

THE PRESIDENT. My position on that hasn't changed a bit. Well, after all, the reason
for all these war agencies which have been established-that is, price control and wage
control--and agreements which we have had with industry and with union labor have been with
the one object in view: to prevent wild inflation. I am just as strong for that now as I was when I
was Vice President.

[9.] Q. Mr. President, we heard today that you might go up to address a joint session of
Congress on V-E Day. Is there anything to that?

THE PRESIDENT. I haven't made any program of that nature. Haven't had it in mind.

[10.] Q. Mr. President, have you sent a new message to Mr. Stalin regarding the Polish
problem?

THE PRESIDENT. No, not any new one.

Q. Well, in the last--since Mr. Molotov came here, sir?

THE PRESIDENT. I have been in communication with Mr. Stalin since Mr. Molotov
came here.1

1 A White House release of April 23 announced that the President had twice received
V. M. Molotov, Vice Chairman, Council of People's Commissars and People's Commissar for
Foreign Affairs, USSR, during his short stay in Washington. The release also stated that the
Secretary of State had conferred with Mr. Moletoy and with Anthony Eden, Secretary of State
for Foreign Affairs of the United Kingdom, on the Polish situation and on matters connected with
the San Francisco Conference. The release further stated that discussion of the Polish situation
would be continued by the three foreign secretaries at San Francisco.

[11.] Q. Mr. President, do you favor the Morgenthau plan designed to use Germany as an
agricultural country?

THE PRESIDENT. I don't know anything about the Morgenthau plan. I haven't studied
it at all, so I can't answer you.

[12.] Q. Mr. President, did you mean to put a period at the end of that sentence, or were you
hoping for a question--

THE PRESIDENT. No, I Wasn't hoping for a question.

Q.--referring to your communication with Mr. Stalin?

THE PRESIDENT. I had a period at the end of the sentence--intended to have.

[13.] Q. Mr. President, did you have lunch today with the new Ambassador from the Argentine
?

THE PRESIDENT. Yes, I did. I had a very pleasant visit with him, and he and his wife
are coming to call on us tomorrow or the next day.

[14.] Q. Mr. President, it may not be a part of the addenda--whatever it's called--in connection
with Justice Jackson, but there is before Congress--before the people--the question of war
criminals who may evade or try to evade by escaping to neutral countries, or some other form.
Have you anything particular to say about policy, in that respect ?

THE PRESIDENT. Well, most of the neutral countries, I think, are on record as against
protecting any war criminals, and I think we will succeed in getting all of the rest of the neutral
countries into the same frame of mind. At least I hope so.

Q. Mr. President, that would be your desire?

THE PRESIDENT. Yes.

Q. Mr. President, can you tell us whether Admiral Doenitz is on the list of war criminals?

THE PRESIDENT. No, sir, I can't.

[15.] Q. Mr. President, do you have any views on tax reductions after V-E Day?

THE PRESIDENT. I am discussing tax problems with the Secretary of the Treasury
now, and I would prefer to discuss that in the press conference particularly devoted to taxes.

[16.] Q. Mr. President, this morning you made public a number of cuts that you are
recommending in general. Would you give us any sort of figure on how much you expect to lop
off altogether?

THE PRESIDENT. No, I didn't total it. It is somewhere in the neighborhood of 7 or 8
billion.1

1On May 2 the White House announced that the President had sent letters to
Congress recommending (1) a reduction in ship construction funds of more than $7 billion, and
(2) a reduction of more than $80 million in the 1946 budget estimates for eight war agencies. A
third release stated that the President had informed Congress that the Office of Civilian Defense
would be terminated and that he had withdrawn its proposed budget of $369,000 for the next
fiscal year.

Q. It is now, and I thought maybe there are additional cuts.

THE PRESIDENT. Well, there will be additional cuts, but they are still under consideration, and
that will be done circumspectly, so I don't want now to prophesy.

[17.] Q. Mr. President, is there any change in Army operation of Montgomery Ward
contemplated?

THE PRESIDENT. None whatever. The policy on Montgomery Ward will be followed
as it has been started.

[18.] Q. Mr. President, can you say anything on your attitude toward the full employment bill of
Senator Murray?

THE PRESIDENT. I would--I am not familiar with Senator Murray's full employment
bill, but I am for full employment, and shall do everything in my power to create full employment
as soon as hostilities end and we start back on the civil program.

[19.] Q. Mr. President, in this 7 or 8 billion reduction in budget, has that been in any way
translated into the numbers of civilian employees of the Government who will be dropped?

THE PRESIDENT. No. These are anticipated expenditures--on ship construction, and
things of that sort.

Q. It does imply, sir

THE PRESIDENT. It does imply, of course--

Q.--obvious reductions?

THE PRESIDENT.--it will imply some reductions. Studies are being made to meet that
situation.

[20.] Q. The State Department recapitulation of the peace negotiations ends on the note that the
Swedish Count Bernadotte came back from Germany yesterday, after having delivered the last
message to Himmler and had no reply. Has there been a reply since yesterday ?

THE PRESIDENT. There has not been a reply. The release of the State Department
stands just as it is.

[21.] Q. Mr. President, would you care to comment on the death of Adolf Hitler reported, or
Mussolini?

THE PRESIDENT. Well, of course, the two principal war criminals will not have to
come to trial; and I am very happy they are out of the way.

Q. Well, does that mean, sir, that we know officially that Hitler is dead?

THE PRESIDENT. Yes.

Q. Do we know how he died, Mr. President?

THE PRESIDENT. No, we do not.

Q. Mr. President, I didn't quite get that. Is it official? This is confirmation that Hitler is dead?

THE PRESIDENT. We have the best--on the best authority possible to obtain at this
time that Hitler is dead. But how he died we are not-we are not familiar with the details as yet.

Q. Could you name the authority, Mr. President?

THE PRESIDENT. I would rather not.

Q. Mr. President, do you mean that the--you are convinced that authority you give is the best
possible, but it is--but that it is true?

THE PRESIDENT. Yes.

[22.] Q. Mr. President, do you care to comment at all on the situation in Germany today; that is,
would you care to make any extension of your remarks on the surrender of the German army in
Italy?

THE PRESIDENT. No, I would not.

Q. Mr. President, do you contemplate a radio broadcast imminently?

THE PRESIDENT. No, I do not.

Q. Mr. President, there have been reports late--later today, following the Italian announcement,
that other groups of Germans are on the point of surrendering in the Dutch pockets?

THE PRESIDENT. I hope that is true. I don't know that it is.

[23.] Q. Mr. President, is there anything you can give us in the way of background, regarding
last Saturday's situation and announcement?

THE PRESIDENT. What was that? [Laughter]

Q. I think that was the one

THE PRESIDENT. I can't give you anything further on it, I am sorry to say.

Reporter: Thank you, Mr. President.

NOTE: President Truman's fifth news conference was held in his office at the White House at
4:02 p.m. on Wednesday, May 2, 1945.
 
Provided courtesy of The American Presidency Project.  John Woolley and Gerhard Peters. University of California, Santa Barbara.