Banting, Frederick G. Nobel Lecture on Diabetes & Insulin. N. pag. Banting Digital Library. Nobel Lecture on Diabetes & Insulin, n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2009. <>. 

            This primary source was a published copy of Frederick Banting’s Nobel Lecture delievered on September 15th, 1925 in Stockholm. I thought it was really interesting to hear Frederick Banting himself describe the events that happened that led up to the discovery of insulin. This source helped me to understand the situation from his point of view. One specific way I used this source is a quote I used from the text to help accurately explain the effects of some of the initial testing the research team did.


Banting Digital Library. New Tecumseth Public Library, n.d. Web. 10 Feb. 2010. <>. 

            The Banting Digital Library is an online collection of resources and artifacts that are all significant in the life of Frederick Banting, the discoverer of insulin. The collection was originally funded by Banting’s widow, who supplied many of the artifacts. I specifically used this database to obtain interesting newspaper articles and headlines, pictures, and other documents that were helpful to my website.


Bayne, Lisa E. E-mail interview. 3 Feb. 2010. 

            Eli Lilly and Company is a pharmaceutical company that played a major role in the development of insulin and making it available to the general public. In order to get the most accurate information possible on this subject, I contacted the Senior Archivist and Historian at Eli Lilly and Company, Lisa Bayne. She was very willing to help with the project, and sent me many helpful electronic documents from their archive. I also interviewed her via E-mail. Her personal account of Lilly’s role in insulin development provided me specific, accurate information.


Candau, M. G. “Diabetes: 50 Years After Insulin.” World Health Feb. 1971: n. pag. Web. 14 Nov. 2009. <>. 

            I found this digital version of World Health Magazine as a part of the Banting Digital Library website. This particular edition, published in 1971, was all about diabetes and celebrated the 50th anniversary of insulin. What I found the most helpful in the magazine was in interview with Dr. C.H. Best. This primary source helped me to get a sense of Best’s point of view, and his thoughts looking back on the discovery.


Hellman, Richard. Personal interview. 26 Jan. 2010. 

            When conducting my research, I believed that a primary source interview with a medical professional in the field of diabetes would be very helpful. Dr. Richard Hellman, M.D., F.AC.P, F.A.C.E, was a perfect option. Hellman began his medical career in 1964, and is currently at practicing at Hellman & Rosen Endocrine Associates, P.C. The list of accomplishments, awards, publishings, board positions, lectures, and other recognition for Dr. Hellman’s insulin and diabetes related research fills over 20 pages. Among these accomplishments, Hellman has been interviewed by the New York Times, MSNBC, Wall Street Journal, Newsweek, CBS Evening News, Los Angeles Times, and countless others. He provided me with great information on how diabetes research has changed over the years.


McCormick, Gene E. The Discovery and Manufacture of Insulin. Lilly Archives, 2005. Microsoft Word file.

            This document was sent to me by the current Senior Archivist from Eli Lilly and Company, Lisa E Bayne. The document was originally composed in 1971, and was last revised in 2005. The information in the paper was valuable to me because it comes from a very reliable source, and I can be confident in its accuracy. It also contained many historic pictures of insulin, insulin production, and other related that I could not find anywhere else. I used these in my website to accurately show the the production and development of insulin.


“Miss Hughes, Ill of Diabetes, Gains by Insulin ‘Cure.’” The Bee [Danville, VA] 17 Oct. 1922: 3. Access Newspaper Archive. Web. 6 Dec. 2009. 

            I was able to access a digital version of this newspaper though a database called Access Newspaper Archive. I found it very insightful to read a published reaction to insulin very soon after it was introduced. This particular article details the story of the daughter of the Secretary of State who was suffering from diabetes. This primary source explained the successes of her case and many others with the aid of insulin.


Bankston, John. Frederick Banting and the Discovery of Insulin. Bear, Delaware: Mitchell Lane, 2002. Print. Unlocking the Secrets of Science. 

            This book gave me some great information about Frederick Banting’s specific role in the discovery of insulin. It provided some helpful background information as well, which helped me to understand the events and decisions leading up Banting’s experiments with the pancreas. All the information was clear but still detailed, and organized in chronological order.


Berger, Melvin. “Frederick Grant Banting.” Famous Men of Modern Biology. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1968. 56-73. Print. 

            This book included profiles of many significant men throughout history in the field of biology. I only used the section of the book that was dedicated to Frederick Banting. This information gave me a good overview of what happened and helped to explain Banting’s role in the discovery.


Bliss, Michael. The Discovery of Insulin. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1982. Print. 

            This source gave me some of the most detailed information about every aspect of the discovery of insulin. I found it helpful that this book went further into the subject, and gave more precise information where other sources just skimmed the surface. One thing this helped me to understand was a lot of the obstacles the team encountered in the process of researching and discovering insulin. Also, many pictures were included of significant people that aided in the process, as well as people from the time that were affected by the new treatment option.


Davidson, Tish, A. M. "Antidiabetic drugs." Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Ed. Jacqueline L.
Longe. Online. Detroit: Thomson Gale, 2008. Science Resource Center. Gale. 03 November 2009 <>

            This article was written about all different types of treatments for diabetes, insulin being one of them. Also, it gave some good information about the precautions of taking insulin and other drugs. This article helped me to not only understand what other technologies have been developed in the field of diabetes treatment since insulin, but also to further understand some negative effects of insulin.


Description of Two Types of Diabetes Mellitus.
Distribution Access, 1997. Video Segment.
15 May 2010. <>. 

            This video clip is a part of a larger segment called Biologix: The Pancreas. The clip I used listed specific details about Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. I included this in my website to clarify the difference between the two types, and the role insulin plays in each. 


“Diabetes Statistics.” American Diabetes Association. ADA, 2009. Web. 6 Dec. 2009. <>. 

            This is the official website for the American Diabetes Association. I mainly used this site for some basic information about diabetes in general. I though it would be one of the most reliable sources on the web to obtain such information because it is a widely respected organization. One thing in particular I gained from this site is specific statistics about how many people have diabetes today. This helped me to understand how many people are affected by the disease, and how many people benefit from treatment options.


“The Discovery of Insulin.” The Official Web Site of the Nobel Foundation, Feb. 2009. Web. 14 Nov. 2009. <>. 

            I read in one of my sources that Banting and Macleod received a Nobel Prize for their discovery of insulin. I thought it might be helpful to get some more information on this, and the official website for the Nobel Foundation seemed like a reliable place to look. I was able to find an article that not only described the doctors receiving the prize, but also detailed some clear information about the actual discovery of insulin. I was able to use both in my paper to help describe the impact and legacy of insulin.


"Frederick Banting". Scientists: Their Lives and Works. Online Edition Detroit: U*X*L, 2006. Science Resource Center. Gale. 03 November 2009 <>

            This article provided some great information about Banting’s background and why he wanted to enter the field of medicine. It clearly explains Bantings’s original idea, role in the discovery, and short term impact brought about by the introduction of the drug.


Gilles, Gary. "Diabetic ketoacidosis." Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Ed. Jacqueline L. Longe.    3rd ed. Detroit: Thomson Gale, 2006. Science Resource Center. Gale. 03 November 2009             <>

            Diabetic ketoacidosis was a major problem for diabetics that insulin helped to drastically reduce. This was one issue that I decided to focus in on to help explain the significance of the new diabetic treatment. This article helped to clearly explain what diabetic ketoacidosis is, as well as its symptoms, treatment, and prevention.


Insulin. Greatest Discoveries with Bill Nye: Medicine, 2005. Discovery Education streaming. Web. 12 Feb. 2010. <>. 

            This video segment is a part of a collection of videos about great medical discoveries in history. It gives clear and simple information about diabetes and some aspects of the history of insulin. I used parts of this video to provide a better understanding of the role of the pancreas in diabetes. I also used a clip to give a helpful visual of the experiments leading up to the discovery of insulin by Fredrick Banting and Charles Best. These clips added visual impact and clarity to my website, as well as helped to actively engage the viewer.


Lerner, Brenda Wilmoth. "Hormones and the Discovery of Insulin." Science and Its Times. Ed.     Neil Schlager and Josh Lauer. Vol. 6. Detroit: Gale Group, 2001. Science Resource     Center. Gale. 03 November 2009             <>

            This article was one of the most helpful that I found. The background information that it provided proved to be very helpful in understanding previous discoveries leading up to insulin. Also, this secondary source very clearly described the testing involved in the discovery. I also found it to be very helpful that there was an entire section in the article for the impact of insulin. Overall, this source helped to better my understanding of my topic.


Yuwiler, Janice M. Insulin. Detroit: Lucent Books, 2005. Print. Great Medical Discoveries. 

            This book provided a wealth of information regarding multiple sides of insulin. First of all, I found the historical context it gave to be very helpful. I used a lot of the information from this book about the origin of diabetes and it’s prevalence throughout different time periods. It described the treatments attempted throughout time, which helped me to understand the real significance insulin made when it was introduced. Also, many photos from the time of the development of insulin and patients treated with it helped to give me a better picture of what happened. I used many of these primary sources in my website to give the reader a better idea of what happened.