Page 1LOG OF
PRESIDENT TRUMAN'S TRIP
TO WAKE ISLAND
OCTOBER 11-18, 1950
LT-COMDR. WILLIAM M. RIGDON, USN
Page 2List of Contents
Roster of the President's Party Page 1
Roster of Staff Personnel 1
Roster of the Secret Service Detail 2
Roster of the Press Party 2, 3
Roster of plane crews 3, 4
Flight record of the INDEPENDENCE 5
Flight record of the CONSTELLATION 6
Foreword 8 to 11
Log of the Trip 13 to 75
Address of the President delivered 77 to 93
at San Francisco, October 17, 1950
Page 3THE PRESIDENT'S PARTY
Honorable Frank Pace Jr., Secretary of the Army
General of the Army Omar N. Bradley, USA, Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff
Honorable W. Averell Harriman, Special Assistant to the President
Honorable Charles S. Murphy, Special Counsel to the President
Honorable Matthew J. Connelly, Secretary to the President (to San Francisco and return)
Honorable Charles G. Ross, Secretary to the President
Honorable Philip C. Jessup - Ambassador at Large
Honorable Dean Rusk, Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs
Admiral Arthur W. Radford, USN, Commander in Chief, Pacific (from Pearl Harbor to Wake Island and return to Pearl Harbor)
Major General Harry H. Vaughan, USA (Res.), Military Aide to the President
Brigadier General Wallace H. Graham, USAF, Personal Physician to the President
Brigadier General Robert B. Landry, USAF, Air Force Aide to the President
Honorable Mon C. Wallgren, Commissioner, Federal Power Commission (to Fairfield-Suisun only)
Honorable Donald S. Dawson, Administrative Assistant to the President (to San Francisco and return)
Honorable George M. Elsey, Administrative Assistant to the President (Washington to Pearl Harbor and return)
Colonel Archelous L. Hamblen, Deputy Special Assistant to the Secretary of the Army for Occupied Areas
Colonel Willis S. Matthews, Aide to General Bradley
Major Vernon A. Walters, Aide to Mr. Harriman
Mr. David E. Bell, Assistant to Mr. Murphy (to San Francisco and return)
Mr. Dewey E. Long, Chief of White House Transportation and Communications Office
Major George J. McNally, Captain Harvard E. Dudley, Mr. Russell A. McMullin, M/Sgt. Dale A. Lehman, and M/Sgt. Homer E. Wolff, all of the White House Communications Office
Miss Vernice Anderson, Secretary to Ambassador Jessup
Mr. Jack Romagna, White House Office
Mr. Arthur S. Prettyman, Valet to the President
Mr. Harry Charnley, White House Office
Mr. Robert E. Duffy Jr., White House Office
Page 4SECRET SERVICE DETAIL
Mr. Carl Dickson, Assistant Chief of United States Secret Service
Mr. James J. Rowley, Supervising Agent, White House Secret Service Detail
Mr. Henry J. Nicholson, Assistant Supervising Agent, White House Secret Service Detail
Mr. Gerald A. Behn, Assistant Supervising Agent, White House Secret Service Detail
Mr. Kenneth E. Balge Mr. Roy H. Kellerman
Mr. Frank M. Barry Mr. H. Stuart Knight
Mr. Lilburn E. Boggs Mr. Robert R. Lapham
Mr. Floyd Boring Mr. Elmer C. Lawrence
Mr. John E. Campion Mr. Gerard B. McCann
Mr. Arvid J. Dahlquist Mr. Vincent P. Mroz
Mr. Paul B. Doster Mr. Andrew P. O'Malley
Mr. Adolph M. Downing Mr. Charles E. Peyton
Mr. Bartley A. Fugler Mr. Emory P. Roberts
Mr. Morgan L. Gies Mr. Rex W. Scouten
Mr. Ray M. Hare Mr. John T. Sherwood
Mr. Carroll L. Honess Mr. Stewart G. Stout
THE PRESS PARTY
Mr. Ernest B. Vaccaro The Associated Press
Mr. Merriam Smith The United Press Association
Mr. Robert G. Nixon The International News Service
Mr. Anthony H. Leviero The New York Times
Mr. Robert Donovan The Hew York Herald Tribune
Mr. Joseph H. Short The Baltimore Sun
Mr. Carleton Kent The Chicago Sun-Times
Mr. Edward T. Folliard The Washington Post
Mr. Philip L. Warden The Chicago Tribune
Mr. Charles J. Greene, Jr. The New York Daily News
Mr. Clyde Farnsworth Scripps-Howard Newspapers
Mr. Norman Wilson Reuters News Agency
Mr. William Hardcastle The London Daily Mail
Mr. John O'Brien The Philadelphia Inquirer
Mr. Robert Sherrod Time Magazine
Mr. Joseph Harsch The Christian Science Monitor
Mr. John B. Whittles The London Telegraph and Post
Mr. Fernand Moulier The French News Agency
Page 5THE PRESS PARTY (continued)
Mr. George Garrott The State Department
Mr. Frank Condiff The International News Service
(Honolulu-Wake Island-Honolulu only)
Mr. Roy Easoyan The Associated Press
(Honolulu-Wake Island-Honolulu only)
Mr. Charles Collingwood The Columbia Broadcasting System
Mr. William Hillman The Mutual Broadcasting System
Mr. Bryson Rash The American Broadcasting Company
Mr. Frank Bourgholtzer The National Broadcasting Company
Mr. David Penn The State Department (Voice of America)
Mr. William Henry The Mutual Broadcasting System
(Honolulu-Wake Island-Honolulu only)
Mr. Frank Cancellare Acme Newspictures
Mr. William Allen Associated Press Photos
Mr. Alfonso Muto International Newspictures
Mr. George Skadding Life Magazine
Mr. Joseph 0' Donnell State Department
Mr. Walter Bordas International Newspictures
Mr. Thomas Craven Paramount News (newsreel pool)
Mr. Alfred O'Eth Paramount News (newsreel pool)
Mr. John Sandstone Telenews
Mr. Bernard Dresner NBC Television
Mr. John Langanegger NBC Television
Colonel Francis V. Williams, USAF Pilot
Major Elmer F. Smith, USAF Second pilot
Captain Einer P. Christensen, USAF Navigator
Mr. Eugene Lucas (Douglas Aircraft Co.) Consultant
M/Sgt. Frederick A. Winslow, USAF Engineer
M/Sgt. Brice Sickler, USAF Second Engineer
M/Sgt. Gaylor E. Robinson, USAF Radio Operator
T/Sgt. Robert E. Hughes USAF Flight Attendant
M/Sgt. Eugene E. Bishop, USAF Guard
M/Sgt. Leo Borego, USAF Guard
M/Sgt. Robert W. Boord, USAF Guard
T/Sgt. William E. Perry, USAF Guard
Page 6PLANE CREWS (continued)
Colonel Chester C. Moomaw, USAF Pilot
Captain William G. Draper, USAF Second pilot
Captain William A. Seward, USAF Navigator
M/Sgt. Russell F. Ellis, USAF Radio operator
M/Sgt. Paul F. Stifflemire, USAF Engineer
M/Sgt. James O. Bailey, USAF Second Engineer
T/Sgt. Pete Mitko, USAF Flight attendant
PAN AMERICAN "STRATOCRUISER":
Mr. S. H. Miller Captain
Mr. W. F. Gravatt Co-pilot
Mr. F. L. Lawson Co-pilot
Mr. S. Savalis First Engineer
Mr. G. Salerno Second Engineer
Mr. D. J. O'Keefe Purser
Miss E. Zweiner Flight attendant
Mr. G. Hollahan Flight attendant
Miss L. A. Ouellet Flight Attendant
Mr. William J. McEvoy Pan American World Airways
Mr. Clarence M. Young Pan American World Airways
- - -
Page 7LIGHT RECORD OF THE "INDEPENDENCE"
St Miles Flight
Time Altitude Average
Dep: Washington, D.C. 11 Oct 50 2030Z 11 Oct 50 3:30 PM
Arr: St. Louis, Mo. 11 Oct 50 2335Z 11 Oct 50 5:35 PM 715 3:05 18,000 226MPH
Dep: St. Louis, Mo. 12 Oct 50 2030Z 12 Oct 50 2:30 PM
Arr. Fairfield-Suisun 13 Oct 50 0315Z 12 Oct 50 7:15 PM 1720 6:45 20,000 255MPH
Dep: Fairfield-Suisun 13 Oct 50 0815Z 13 Oct 50 12:15 AM
Arr: Hickam AFB 13 Oct 50 1800Z 13 Oct 50 8:00 AM 2470 9:45 14,000 253MPH
Dep: Hickam AFB 14 Oct 50 1025Z 14 Oct 50 12:25 AM
Arr: Wake Island 14 Oct 50 1830Z 15 Oct 50 6:30 AM 2334 8:05 18,000 288MPH
Dep: Wake Island 14 Oct 50 2335Z 15 Oct 50 11:35 AM
Arr: Hickam AFB 15 Oct 50 0815Z 14 Oct 50 10:15 PM 2334 8:40 19,000 269MPH
Dep: Hickam AFB 16 Oct 50 1630Z 16 Oct 50 6:30 AM
Arr. San Francisco 17 Oct 50 0100Z 16 Oct 50 5:00 PM 2440 8:30 17,000 287MPH
Dep: San Francisco 18 Oct 50 0615Z 17 Oct 50 10:15 PM
Arr: Andrews AFB, Md 18 Oct 50 1505Z 18 Oct 50 10:05 AM 2480 8:50 19,000 280MPH
Dep: Andrews AFB, Md 18 Oct 50 1640Z 18 Oct 50 11:40 AM
Arr: Washington, DC 18 Oct 50 1700Z 18 Oct 50 12:01 PM 10 :20
TOTAL MILES FLOWN: 14,503
TOTAL FLYING TIME: 54 hours
Page 8FLIGHT RECORD OF THE "CONSTELLATION" #48608
St Miles Flight
Time Altitude Average
Dep: Washington, DC 12 Oct 50 1905Z 12 Oct 50 2:05 PM
Arr: Fairfield-Suisun 13 Oct 50 0530Z 12 Oct 50 9:30 PM 2430 10:25 18,000 227MPH
Dep: Fairfield-Suisun 13 Oct 50 0801Z 13 Oct 50 12:01 AM
Arr: Hickam AFB 13 Oct 50 1750Z 13 Oct 50 7:50 AM 2470 9:50 16,000 251MPH
Dep: Hickam AFB 14 Oct 50 0950Z 13 Oct 50 11:50 PM
Arr: Wake Island 14 Oct 50 1810Z 15 Oct 50 6:10 AM 2334 8:20 18,000 280MPH
Dep: Wake Island 14 Oct 50 2340Z 15 Oct 50 11:40 AM
Arr: Hickam AFB 15 Oct 50 0840Z 14 Oct 50 10:40 PM 2334 9:00 17,000 259MPH
Dep: Hickam AFB 16 Oct 50 1635Z 16 Oct 50 6:35 AM
Arr: San Francisco 17 Oct 50 0105Z 16 Oct 50 5:05 PM 2440 8:30 19,000 287MPH
Dep: San Francisco 18 Oct 50 0615Z 17 Oct 50 10:15 PM
Arr: Andrews AFB 18 Oct 50 1455Z 18 Oct 50 9:55 AM 2480 8:40 20,000 286MPH
Dep: Andrews AFB 18 Oct 50 1630Z 18 Oct 50 11:30 AM
Arr: Washington, DC 18 Oct 50 1650Z 18 Oct 50 11:50 AM 10 :20
TOTAL MILES FLOWN: 14, 498
TOTAL FLYING TIME: 56 hours 05 minutes
On Monday, October 9, 1950, the President dispatched a message to General of the Army Douglas MacArthur, USA (Commander in Chief, United States Forces, Far Eastern Command, and Commander in Chief, United Nations Command), informing him that he urgently desired to meet with him on either Saturday, October 14th, or Monday, October 16th. The President suggested Honolulu as the place for the meeting. The President added that he realized the difficulty that faced General MacArthur with a new campaign starting, or in progress, and that if he felt his presence in Japan or Korea was of critical importance, he, the President, would consider meeting him on Saturday morning, October 14th, at Wake Island.
On Tuesday, October l0th, General of the Army Omar N. Bradley, USA (Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff) arrived at the White House at 9:30 AM, to brief the President on the military situation in Korea. At this time, General Bradley handed the President a copy of General MacArthur's reply, which had been received at the Pentagon during the night. General MacArthur stated that if agreeable to the President, he would report to him at Wake Island on Saturday morning, October 14th (West Longitude time)
The President informed his staff in a staff meeting at 10:00 o'clock that same morning, that he would leave Washington the next afternoon for Wake Island, stopping overnight Wednesday, October 11th, at St. Louis, Missouri.
Later that forenoon, Mr. Charles G. Ross (Secretary to the President) called the newspaper reporters to his office and handed them the following statement by the President:
"General MacArthur and I are making a quick trip over the coming weekend to
meet in the Pacific.
"When I see him I shall express the appreciation and gratitude of the people and Government of the United States for the great service which he is rendering to world peace. As Commander in Chief of United Nations Forces in Korea, he has been acting for the world organization as well as for us. His mission has been to repel aggression and to restore international peace and security in the area, as called for by the United Nations. He is carrying out his mission with the imagination, courage, and effectiveness which have marked his entire service as one of our greatest military leaders.
"I shall discuss with him the final phase of United Nations action in Korea. In this phase, the United Nations command will be working closely with the United Nations Commission which has just been created by the General Assembly and given heavy responsibilities for the establishment of a unified, independent, and democratic Korea.
"We must proceed rapidly with our part in the organization of the United Nations relief and reconstruction program in order to give the Korean people a chance to live in peace. Secretary Acheson in his opening address to the General Assembly stressed the importance of this great opportunity to demonstrate the capacity of the world organization to reestablish the economic and social life of Korea, which has suffered
Page 10cruelly as a result of aggression. The successful accomplishment of this peaceful mission of reconstruction can serve as a pattern for other efforts to improve the lot of people all over the world. The task of reconstruction in Korea will be a heavy one and will require a major effort by the United Nations; the United States will carry on its full share of this load.
"The only interest of the United States is to help carry out these great purposes of the United Nations in Korea. We have absolutely no interest in obtaining any special position for the United States in Korea, nor do we wish to retain bases or other military installations in that country. We should like to get our armed forces out and back to their other duties at the earliest moment consistent with the fulfillment of our obligations as a member of the United Nations.
"Naturally, I shall take advantage of this opportunity to discuss with General MacArthur other matters within his responsibility."
For reasons of security, the site of the proposed meeting was not given in the President's statement to the Press.
During the course of the afternoon of October l0th, radio messages were sent to Admiral Arthur W. Radford, USN, Commander in Chief, Pacific (Headquarters at Pearl Harbor) and Lieutenant General Albert C. Wedemeyer, Commanding General, Sixth Army (Headquarters at San Francisco) informing them of the President's plans to visit their respective areas, and requesting that they provide security, quarters and messing, communications, and automobile transportation incident to the trip. They were also informed that an advance White House party, consisting of Brigadier General Robert B. Landry; USAF (Air Force Aide to the President), Mr. George M. Elsey (Administrative Assistant to the President), Mr. James J. Rowley (Supervising Agent of the White House Secret Service Detail), and Major George J. McNally, Signal Corps, USA, and Mr. Russell A. McMullin of the White House Communications Office, would leave Washington that night for San Francisco and Pearl Harbor to confer with them and to coordinate arrangements for the President's visit.
General Landry, Mr. Elsey, Mr. Rowley, Major McNally and Mr. McMullin, accompanied by several agents from the White House Secret Service Detail, departed Washington at 10:10 PM, Tuesday, October 10th, via commercial airlines, for San Francisco.
General Landry and Mr. Rowley visited the Fairfield-Suisun Air Force Base, located near Sacramento, California, on Wednesday, October 11th, to coordinate arrangements for the President's stopover there the following evening. The advance party then continued on to Honolulu, via commercial airlines, where they arrived at 9:30 AM, Thursday, October 12th. At Pearl Harbor, General Landry, Mr. Elsey and Mr. Rowley conferred with Admiral Radford and his Chief of Staff, Rear Admiral John E. Gingrich, USN, in coordinating arrangements and preparations for the reception of the President the following day.
Page 11General Landry, Mr. Rowley, Major McNally and Mr. McMullin departed Hickam Air Force Base (Oahu), by Air Force stratocruiser, at 10:00 PM, Thursday, October 12th, for Wake Island, where they conferred with Rear Admiral Richard H. Cruzen, USN, concerning arrangements at Wake Island. Admiral Cruzen had been sent to Wake by Admiral Radford to serve as his representative. Mr. Elsey remained at Pearl Harbor to complete arrangements for the President's stay there over the 14th and 15th of October.
The Honorable Matthew J. Connelly (Secretary to the President) and Donald S. Dawson (Administrative Assistant to the President) went to San Francisco several days later to coordinate arrangements incident to the President's stopover in San Francisco on his return from the Pacific. Captain Harvard E. Dudley, Signal Corps, U.S.A., and Master Sergeants Dale A. Lehman and Homer E. Wolff, U.S.A. (All of the White House Communications Office) handled communications for the party while the President was in San Francisco.
Page 12LOG OF THE PRESIDENT'S TRIP TO WAKE ISLAND
October 11 - 18, 1950
* * * * * *
Wednesday, October 11:
The President boarded the INDEPENDENCE (Air Force C-118 aircraft #46505) at the Military Air Transport Terminal, Washington National Airport, at 3:25 PM. The INDEPENDENCE departed Washington, D. C. five minutes later for St. Louis, Missouri, on the first Leg of a flight to Wake Island in the mid-Pacific, where the President was to confer with General of the Army Douglas MacArthur, USA, Commander in Chief, United States Forces, Far Eastern Command and Commander in Chief, United Nations Command. Accompanying the President on the flight to St. Louis were:
Honorable Charles G. Ross, Secretary to the President
Major General Harry H. Vaughan, USA (Res.), Military Aide to the President
Brigadier General Wallace H. Graham, USAF, Personal Physician to the President
Honorable Mon C. Wallgren, Commissioner, Federal Power Commission.
Also embarked were:
Mr. Carl Dickson, Assistant Chief of the Secret Service
Messrs. Henry J. Nicholson, Gerard B. McCann and Morgan L. Gies of the White House Secret Service Detail
Mr. Jack Romagna, White House Office Staff; and
Mr. Arthur S. Prettyman, Valet to the President.
Rear Admiral Robert L. Dennison, USN, Naval Aide to the President, was on the sick list and unable to accompany the President.
Mrs. Truman, Secretary of State Acheson and Postmaster General Donaldson were among those gathered at the airport to see the President and his party off.
The following members of the Press accompanied the President's party to St. Louis and on the subsequent flight to Wake Island. They departed Washington at 3:30 PM, via a Pan American World Airways stratocruiser. Messrs. Ernest B. Vaccaro, Merriman Smith, Robert G. Nixon, Anthony H. Leviero, Robert Donovan, Joseph H. Short, Carleton Kent, Edward T. Folliard, Philip L. Warden, Charles J. Greene, Jr., Clyde Farnsworth, Norman Wilson, John O'Brien, William Hardcastle, Robert Sherrod, Joseph Harsch, John B. Whittles, Fernand Moulier, George Garrott, William Hillman, Bryson Rash, Frank Bourgholtzer, David Penn, Frank Cancellare, William Allen, Alfonso Muto, George Skadding, Joseph O'Donnell, Walter Bordas, Thomas Craven, Alfred O'Eth, John Sandstone, Bernard Dresner and Mr. John
Page 13Langanegger. Messrs. Dewey E. Long, Harry Charnley and Robert E. Duffy Jr. of the White House Office staff, and several members of the Secret Service, were also embarked in this plane.
Enroute to St. Louis, the INDEPENDENCE cruised on a direct course and at an altitude of 18,000 feet. Good weather and favorable winds were encountered during the flight of 715 miles.
The INDEPENDENCE arrived at the Naval Air Station (Lambert Field), St. Louis, Missouri, at 5:35 PM (CST). The President was met there by Captain F. A. Brandley, USN, Commanding Officer of the Naval Air Station, and by members of the local press. There were no honors or ceremonies. After an exchange of greetings, the President and members of his party entered assigned automobiles and motored to the Jefferson Hotel in St. Louis, where they resided overnight.
The Press plane arrived at the Naval Air Station, St. Louis, at 5:40 PM.
The President and members of his party ate dinner in their respective hotel rooms. At 7:55 PM, they left the Jefferson Hotel and motored to the Kiel Auditorium where they witnessed the ceremonies attending the installation of the President's sister, Miss Mary Jane Truman, as Worthy Grand Matron of the Eastern Star for the State of Missouri.
After the completion of the Eastern Star ceremonies, about 10:00 PM, the President and members of his party left the Kiel Auditorium and returned to the Jefferson Hotel. No other activities were scheduled for the evening. After telephoning Mrs. Truman at the Blair House, the President retired for the night.
Thursday, October 12:
The President arose at his usual early hour and, accompanied by several members of the Secret Service Detail, left the hotel at 6:35 AM for a walk. An old friend, Judge Roy Harper, who was waiting in the hotel lobby when the President came downstairs, joined him for the walk. The President returned to the hotel at about 7:15 AM, ate breakfast and spent the remainder of the forenoon in his hotel suite.
At 12:05 PM, the President left the Jefferson Hotel and motored to the Sheraton Hotel where he attended a luncheon given by Miss Mary Jane Truman and Judge Byrne E. Bigger. Judge Bigger had been installed Wednesday evening as Worthy Grand Patron of the Eastern Star for the State of Missouri.
At 1:45 PM, the President bade his sister goodbye and, accompanied by members of his party, left the Sheraton Hotel and motored to the Naval Air Station, where they arrived at 2:25 PM. Captain Brandley was on hand to see the President off. There were no honors rendered. Before boarding the INDEPENDENCE the President shook hands with fourteen motorcycle officers of the St. Louis Police Department who had escorted him to the Naval Air Station.
Page 14The INDEPENDENCE departed St. Louis at 2:30 PM for the Fairfield-Suisun Air Force Base, on the second leg of the trip to Wake Island. Embarked with the President were:
Mr. Ross, General Vaughan, General Graham, Mr. Wallgren, Mr. Romagna, Mr. Dickson, Mr. Nicholson, Mr. Behn, Mr. Gies, Mr. McCann and Mr. Prettyman.
The Press plane left St. Louis at 12:30 PM, two hours earlier than the President, since the members of the Press wanted to be on hand at Fairfield-Suisun when the President arrived there.
Shortly after the INDEPENDENCE left St. Louis the President went forward and took over the second pilot's position, spread out a flight map, and directed the plane's course from a point immediately east of Kansas City to a point near Fort Riley, Kansas. The flight to Fairfield Suisun was made at an average altitude of 20,000 feet, on a course via Kansas City, Denver, Salt Lake City and Reno.
The INDEPENDENCE arrived at the Fairfield-Suisun Air Force Base at 7:15 PM (PST). The 1720 mile flight was made in six hours and forty-five minutes, with clear weather and head winds prevailing over the entire route. Dinner was served prior to landing.
The President was met at Fairfield-Suisun by Brigadier General Henry C. Kristofferson, USAF (Commander West Coast Division, Military Air Transport Service) and Colonel Joe W. Kelly, USAF, Commander, Fairfield-Suisun Air Force Base. No honors were rendered. After an exchange of greetings, the President and members of his party entered assigned automobiles and departed for Colonel Kelly's quarters, where they made their headquarters while at Fairfield-5uisun. Colonel Kelly rode with the President. While at Colonel Kelly's quarters, the President talked by telephone with Mrs. Truman at the Blair House.
The U. S. Air Force CONSTELLATION (C-121 aircraft, #48608) arrived at Fairfield-Suisun at 9:30 PM (PST) bearing the Honorable Frank Pace Jr., Secretary of the Army, and a group of military and diplomatic advisers, who joined the President's party for the trip to Wake Island. The CONSTELLATION had departed Washington, D. C. at 2:05 PM (EST). Accompanying Secretary Pace were:
General of the Army Omar N. Bradley, USA, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
Honorable W. Averell Harriman, Special Assistant to the President
Honorable Charles S. Murphy, Special Counsel to the President
Honorable Philip C. Jessup, Ambassador at Large
Honorable Dean Rusk, Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs
Colonel Archelous L. Hamblen, USA, Deputy Special Assistant to the Secretary of the Army for Occupied Areas
Colonel Willis S. Matthews, USA, Aide to General Bradley
Major Vernon A. Walters, USA, Aide to Mr. Harriman
Miss Vernice Anderson, Secretary to Ambassador Jessup
members of the official party; and
Mr. Charles Collingwood, Correspondent for the Columbia Broadcasting System.
Page 15Members of the official party traveling on this plane were met by General Kristofferson and Colonel Kelly and escorted to Colonel Kelly's quarters, where they joined the President.
The Press plane departed Fairfield-Suisun at 9:45 PM (PST) for Hickam Air Force Base (Hawaii).
While at Colonel Kelly's quarters, the President received Mr. Harpo Marx. Mr. Marx and his troupe of entertainers had given a performance at the Fairfield-Suisun base hospital earlier in the evening.
At 10:05 PM (PST) the President, Secretary Pace, General Bradley, General Vaughan and General Graham left Colonel Kelly's quarters and motored to the base hospital. The President and members of his party were met at the base hospital by Colonel Arthur Corliss, USAF (Commanding Officer of the Base Hospital). The President and his party visited with patients in Ward C-l (wounded evacuees from Korea) until 11:15 PM, at which time they left the hospital and motored to the airfield. On arrival there the President left the group, boarded the INDEPENDENCE and retired for the night. Secretary Pace and the other members of the group returned to Colonel Kelly's quarters, where they remained until about 11:45 PM.
Friday, October 13:
The INDEPENDENCE was airborne from Fairfield-Suisun at 12:15 AM (PST) for Hawaii. The CONSTELLATION had departed 14 minutes earlier, at 12:01 AM, for the same destination. Colonel Francis W. Williams, USAF (pilot of the INDEPENDENCE) acted as commander of the joint flight in the absence of Brigadier General Robert B. Landry, USAF, Air Force Aide to the President, who was with the advance party. Embarked in the INDEPENDENCE with the President were: Mr. Ross, General Vaughan, General Graham, Mr. Romagna, Mr. Nicholson, Mr. Behn and Mr. Prettyman. Embarked in the CONSTELLATION were: Secretary Pace, General Bradley, Mr. Harriman, Mr. Murphy, Ambassador Jessup, Mr. Rusk, Colonel Hamblen, Colonel Matthews, Major Walters, and Miss Anderson, members of the official party; and Mr. Collingwood.
Upon reaching a cruising altitude of 14,000 feet, near the Farallon Islands, a direct course was set for Hickam Air Force Base on the island of Oahu.
The air-sea rescue arrangements for the flight, which were coordinated by the Commander in Chief, Pacific (Admiral Radford), made the President's flight from San Francisco to Hawaii perhaps the safest trans-Pacific air crossing in history. The Pacific Command's established ocean-wide search and rescue organization was augmented by several units of our Pacific Fleet, the Air Force and the Coast Guard for this occasion. Seven ships - the USS CARPENTER (DDE825), USS PERKINS (DDR887), USS ROGERS (DDR876), USS CABEZON (SS334, and the Coast Guard cutters IRIQUOIS, ESCANABA, and WACHUSETTS - were spaced at regular intervals along the 2100-mile route.
Page 16The Coast Guard cutters were especially equipped for duty as ocean station vessels to provide weather observations of surface and upper air conditions, search and rescue facilities, ship to aircraft radio communications, and homing beacons for aircraft. The destroyers were high speed ships capable of reaching a downed plane faster than any other water-borne vessel.
Air Force B-29 and B-17 type aircraft circled the flight at points between the West Coast and Hawaii and escorted the flight for parts of the route. The usual sea-air rescue planes of the Navy, Coast Guard and Air Force also were alerted in California, Hawaii and the Pacific Islands to the West.
Good weather and head winds prevailed during the nine hours and 45 minutes in flight. Communications with the homing aircraft and surface craft were superior. During the entire flight the INDEPENDENCE and the CONSTELLATION were in constant radio communication and flight progress of the two aircraft was relayed to Washington, D. C., by means of the radio teletype facilities of the INDEPENDENCE.
The President arose at 5 AM (3 AM Hawaiian time) and came out into the main cabin where he visited for a while with the other passengers. After an early breakfast, he went forward and checked on the progress of the flight. The visibility was exceptionally good and the President was afforded an excellent view of the entire Hawaiian Island chain as the flight approached the Hawaiian Islands.
The Press plane arrived at the Hickam Air Force Base at 5:45 AM (Hawaiian time). The members of the press party were met at Hickam Field by Commander Harold E. Cross, USN (Public Information Officer, Staff of Commander in Chief, Pacific Fleet), who escorted them to a bachelor officers' quarters at Hickam Field where they were billeted during their stay in Oahu. A selected group of the press party, consisting of Messrs. Vaccaro, Smith, Nixon, Hillman, Kent, Cancellare and Craven, was quartered in a private home at 8 Kamakini Street, Pearl Harbor, close to the President's quarters. This group was billeted nearby so that they would be available in case the President or Mr. Ross wished to make any news announcement on short notice. After having their breakfast, all members of the press party returned to the airfield at Hickam Field to await the arrival of the President.
The CONSTELLATION landed at Hickam Field at 7:50 AM. Admiral Arthur W. Radford, USN (Commander in Chief, Pacific) and Lieutenant General Henry S. Aurand, USA (Commander, U.S. Army, Pacific) greeted Secretary Pace and the members of his group as they left the plane. All hands remained at the field to await the President.
The INDEPENDENCE circled Pearl Harbor before landing at Hickam Field at 8:00 AM. On leaving his plane, the President was greeted by Admiral Radford, the Honorable Ingram M. Stainback (Governor of Hawaii), the Honorable Joseph R. Farrington (Delegate to Congress from the Territory of Hawaii), Honorable John H. Wilson (Mayor of the City of Honolulu), and Colonel Manning E. Tillery, USAF, Commander, Hickam Air Force Base.
After the Governor had presented the President with a lei and the photographers had taken pictures of the exchange of greetings, honors were rendered by the Hickam Air Force Base
Page 17band and guard. The President, accompanied by Admiral Radford and Colonel Tillery, inspected the honor guard. The President then shook hands with the following general and flag officers on duty in the Hawaiian area:
Lieutenant General Henry S. Aurand, USA, Commander, U.S. Army, Pacific
Lieutenant General Lemuel C. Shepherd, USMC, Commanding General, Fleet Marine Force, Pacific
Rear Admiral Charles H. McMorris, USN, Commandant Fourteenth Naval District
Major General Percy W. Clarkson, USA, Deputy Commander, U. S. Army, Pacific
Rear Admiral John H. Brown, USN, Commander Submarine Force, Pacific
Rear Admiral Francis C. Denebrink, USN, Commander Service Force, Pacific
Rear Admiral R. A. Oftsie, USN, Commander Carrier Division Five
Rear Admiral Roy T. Cowdrey, USN, Commander Pearl Harbor, Naval Shipyard
Rear Admiral Ernest W. Litch, USN, Commander Fleet Air, Hawaii
Rear Admiral John E. Gingrich, USN, Chief of Staff and Aide to Commander in Chief, Pacific Fleet
Rear Admiral William G. Tomlinson, USN, Commander, Pacific Division, Military Air Transport Service
Rear Admiral John E. Wood (SC) USN, Commanding Officer, Naval Supply Center, Pearl Harbor
Rear Admiral L. S. Fiske, USN, Deputy High Commissioner of Trust Territory of Pacific
Rear Admiral L. A. Moebus, USN, Commander Fleet Air, Alameda, California
Brigadier General Ivan W. Miller, USMC, Deputy Commander, Fleet Marine Force, Pacific
Brigadier General F. W. Makinney, Adjutant General, Hawaiian National Guard, and
Captain J. D. Conway, USCG, Chief of Staff to Commander, Fourteenth Coast Guard District.
The President and all members of his party then embarked in assigned automobiles and proceeded to the quarters located at 37 Makalapa Drive, Pearl Harbor, where they arrived at 8:45 AM. Admiral Radford and Governor Stainback rode with the President. The President was met at the front door by Mrs. Radford, wife of Admiral Radford, who placed a lei of bright red carnations about his neck and gave him the traditional Hawaiian greeting.
The house at 37 Makalapa Drive, which adjoins Admiral Radford's quarters, is a guest house and was used by the President and some members of his party during their stay in Hawaii. (Mr. Harriman, Mr. Ross, Mr. Murphy, General Vaughan and General Graham). The President had specified that he desired to reside on a government reservation but not as a house guest of anyone and that he desired to operate his own mess. Secretary Pace, General Bradley, Ambassador Jessup, Mr. Rusk, Colonel Hamblen, Colonel Matthews and Major Walters resided at 55 Halawa Street, a short distance from the President's quarters. Mr. Elsey, who had come out with the advance party, was a house guest of Admiral and Mrs. Radford. Mr. Harriman, Secretary Pace, General Bradley, Ambassador Jessup, Mr. Rusk, Mr. Ross, Mr. Murphy, General Vaughan, General Graham and Mr. Elsey messed with the President at 37 Makalapa. General Landry joined the mess after his return from Wake Island. The mess was manned by stewards from Admiral Radford's household staff.
Page 18Miss Anderson was quartered at 9 Palmyra Street, Pearl Harbor, as a guest of Lieutenant Commander Dorothy Richard, USN, a WAVE officer attached to Headquarters of the Commander in Chief, Pacific.
The President and the members of his mess sat down to breakfast at 9:00 AM.
Admiral Radford called at the President's quarters at 10:00 AM and, a few minutes later, the President, accompanied by Secretary Pace, Mr. Harriman, General Bradley, Ambassador Jessup, Mr. Ross, Mr. Murphy, Mr. Elsey, General Vaughan, General Graham and Admiral Radford, left the quarters and walked about 1/4 mile to Admiral Radford's headquarters, where the President was briefed on the military situation in Korea by members of Admiral Radford's staff.
At 10:20 AM they left Admiral Radford's headquarters and walked another 1/4 mile to the CinCPac boat landing, where they embarked in a Navy motor boat (NB3) and left at 10:30 AM, on a tour of Pearl Harbor. Members of the press party, embarked in a second motor boat, accompanied the President around the harbor. Rear Admiral Brown and Lieutenant Commander I. A. Kittell, USN, were aboard the NB3. Lieutenant Commander Kittell acted as guide and gave the party a detailed lecture and explanation of the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, and the history of Pearl Harbor's vast activities during the recent war when it served as the principal base for our Pacific Fleet. The boats traveled around Ford Island, drawing close to the hulks of both the UTAH and the ARIZONA, last reminders of the 1941 Pearl Harbor disaster. The President was told that the sunken target ship UTAH still contained the bodies of 58 victims, and the ARIZONA 1,092.
The two motor boats were moored at the Submarine Base landing, Pearl Harbor, at 11:40 AM. and the President, members of his party and the press party disembarked, entered assigned automobiles and motored to the Pearl Harbor Officers' Club. The streets from the landing to the club were lined with Naval and Marine Corps personnel, civilian employees and their families, out to catch a glimpse of the President.
Upon arrival at the club, the President was escorted to a private office, where he rested and chatted with Admiral Radford for about 30 minutes. He was then escorted to the main dining room where, together with Admiral Radford and Rear Admiral McMorris, he received approximately fifty guests who had been invited to luncheon. They included Governor Stainback, Mayor Wilson, Delegate Farrington, Territorial Legislative leaders, civic leaders and senior military and naval officers. A complete list follows: The President, Admiral Radford, Governor Stainback, Mayor Wilson, Delegate Farrington, Secretary Pace, General Bradley, Mr. Harriman, Mr. Murphy, Mr. Ross, Ambassador Jessup, Mr. Rusk, General Aurand, General Shepherd, Admiral McMorris, General Clarkson, Admiral Brown, Admiral Denebrink, Admiral Oftsie, Admiral Cowdrey, Admiral Litch, Admiral Gingrich, Admiral Tomlinson, Admiral Wood, Admiral Fiske, Admiral Moebus, General Miller, General Makinney, Captain Conway, Associate Justice Louis LeBaron, Messrs. Riley Allen, Lorrin P. Thurston, Hiram L. Fong, John A. Hamilton, Dr. Gregg M. Sinclair, Mr. Oren E. Long, Dr. K. C. Leebrick, Mr. Lester A. Marks, Judge J. Frank McLaughlin, Judge Delbert Metzger, Mr. Frank Midkiff, Right Reverend James J.
Page 19Sweney, Mr. W. Tsukiyama, Mr. T. E. Trent, Mr. Urband E. Wild, Mr. James Alsup, Senator W. H. Heen, Mr. Duke P. Kahanamoku, Messrs. Charles E. Kauhane, Charles F. Chillingworth, Roy Coll, Sr., Walter F. Dillingham, Tucker Gratz, Jan O. Jabulka, L. Porter Dickinson, S. B. Kemp, Bishop S. Kennedy, General Vaughan, General Graham, Mr. Elsey, Colonel Hamblen, Colonel Matthews, Major Walters, Commander J. W. O'Grady, USN, and Mr. Romagna.
Luncheon was served at 12:30 PM. Service was by a group of Japanese ladies, attired in Japanese kimonos and obis.
After the service, Admiral Radford spoke briefly, welcoming the President on behalf of the armed forces in the Pacific. Governor Stainback then spoke, welcoming the President in the name of the people of the Territory of Hawaii. The President responded as follows:
"Governor Stainback, Admiral Radford, gentlemen of this great Territory of Hawaii:
"It is certainly a pleasure to have this short visit in Honolulu. I sincerely wish I could stay longer. In fact, I made a suggestion to my advisers this morning that we might take a vote on whether we should just let the situation drift and stay here. But, of course we can't do that, you know we can't do that.
"I am very much interested in this part of the world. I was highly appreciative of the fact that these young ladies appeared in their native costumes. That was an accommodation to us. They looked very beautiful, and I know that all of you enjoyed the luncheon much better on that account.
"I know also that this Territory has furnished some very able assistance in Korea, and that your casualties have been very great. I am sincerely sorry about the casualties, but somebody has to meet these situations, they can't be met with sticks and stones - somebody is bound to get hurt.
"Last night, before I left San Francisco, I visited the hospital at Fairfield Base, and called on those wounded who had just cone in from Korea. Those young men have magnificent morale. Secretary Pace, General Bradley, and several others of the party went with me to that hospital ward. There was not a single complaint. There was not a single man there who did not feel that he was making the proper sacrifice for his country. If all of us in the whole country had that same kind of morale, we would never get into trouble. I think we are slowly and gradually attaining that situation.
"It is difficult for us - for this Republic of ours - to realize the responsibilities of the Government of the United States. In one generation we have come from an isolated Republic, which considered itself entirely safe with an ocean on each side of it, to the position of leadership of the world - the most powerful nation in the world.
Page 20"And as the most powerful nation in the world, we have to assume world responsibilities. One of the principal reasons why I am anxious to see the Territory of Hawaii, and the Territory of Alaska, become States is because of their vital importance to the defense and to the welfare of the United States of America. They are both key positions in the national defense of the United States on its western borders. It is necessary that they have representation in the legislative bodies of the United States, in order to bring that lesson home to the Congress. There are men in the Congress who do not yet realize that we are an international nation now, and not just a Republic bounded on the east by the Atlantic and on the west by the Pacific. I hope that lesson can go home to the whole country in such a way that we can maintain the peace of the world.
"I am not one of those who thinks that another world war is inevitable. I am just as sure as I stand here that the people behind the Iron Curtain are just as anxious for peace as I am. I am just as sure as I stand here that if the truth could be gotten to these people, there would be peace in the world. And we are going to get the truth to those people, and we won't have to do it with guns, I am sure.
"I can't tell you how very much I appreciate the hospitality of Admiral Radford and the Governor of this Territory, and I sincerely wish that I were not on an errand which requires constant study and work, so that I am not in a position to attend any special meetings of any kind.
"It is necessary, after our conference with General MacArthur on the situation in Korea and Japan, for me to immediately return to San Francisco and tell the world what our policy is as it affects the world and world peace. And on the 24th of October I shall appear before the United Nations and try to drive the matter home in such a way that we may begin to arrive at a situation where we can have world peace and not world war. That is my sole ambition. I have no other- never had any other. Since I became President in 1945, it has been my constant effort to get things worked out so that there would be permanent peace in the world. There is no reason why it can't be done.
"I want to say to you that had I been able to accomplish that in 1948, I don't think it would have been necessary for me to go out and show certain people that polls don't count. I am glad I did that, however. I am glad I did that, however, because it taught those people a lesson, and they needed a lesson - they needed it badly.
"I am hoping that as a result of what we are trying to do, we will wind up with a condition where we won't have to make the sacrifices that your young men are making now.
"It was my privilege, after the Second World War, to pin some medals on some of your soldiers from this Territory - brave men who won those medals in Italy. I decorated the whole regiment, or battalion, I forget which it was, in the back yard of the White House, and I pinned some special medals on some of those young men. And I was very proud and happy to do it.
Page 21"You know, one of the greatest things that I do as President of the United States is to award medals to these young man who win them. I have awarded more Congressional Medals of Honor than all the Presidents put together. That is not because I am there, it is because of the fact that we had the greatest war we have ever fought, which ended while I happened to be President.
"I want to thank you again for all this gracious hospitality, and I hope that you will hold the door open and let me come back down here sometime, if I can get Key West's consent, and stay longer."
Pictures and sound recordings were made during the President's speech.
The members of the press party were not present while the luncheon was being served, but they had assembled outside the officers' club. Mr. Ross and Mr. Elsey went outside to see them shortly after 1:00 PM, at which time Mr. Ross officially announced that the President would leave Hickam Field that night for Wake Island to meet General Macarthur. Prior to this time, the White House had made no official announcement that Wake would be the meeting place although it had been surmised in the press. Anticipating that there would be many questions from reporters concerning communications at Wake Island, Mr. Elsey had invited Captain Walter E. Linaweaver, USN (Communications Officer, Staff of the Commander in Chief, Pacific Fleet) to be present. Captain Linaweaver explained to the members of the press party what communication facilities had been arranged for at Wake Island. The members of the press party then entered the club, in time to hear Admiral Radford, Governor Stainback and the President speak.
The luncheon was concluded at 1:25 PM and the President returned to the private office. While there he talked by telephone with Mrs. Truman at the Blair House and reported his safe arrival in Hawaii. He had not wished to call earlier because of the five hour time difference between Honolulu and Washington. It was 8:25 AM in Washington when he spoke to Mrs. Truman.
Before leaving the club, three students from the University of Hawaii - Charles Parmiter, Royal Kingsley and John Bonsey - presented the President with an Aloha shirt and were photographed with him. The students, from the staff of the student newspaper "Ka Leo", thus scored the only exclusive interview and photograph of the trip.
The President left the club at 1:35 PM, when he and members of his party entered assigned automobiles and departed Pearl Harbor on a 55-mile tour of military and naval installations. Admiral Radford and General Aurand rode with the President.
The first stop was the Tripler General Hospital, where many of the casualties from the Korean Area were being brought for hospitalization prior to their evacuation to the United States. The President was greeted by Colonel H. H. Twitchell, USAF, Commanding Officer of the hospital. Leaving the reporters and photographers outside, the President, General Bradley, Admiral Radford and several other members of the party entered the hospital and were
Page 22conducted on a tour of several of the wards. The President visited individually and shook hands with about fifty of the wounded who had been brought in from Korea.
On leaving the Tripler General Hospital, the motorcade set out for Scofield Barracks. As they passed through the plantation town of Waipahu, hundreds of barefoot school children lined the highway. The President stood up in the open convertible in which he was riding and waved his hat. The children cheered.
At Wheeler Field and the adjacent Scofield Barracks, the motorcade rolled along streets flanked with military personnel and families. At Scofield the party slowly drove around a quadrangle where three companies of draftees - from Hawaii - were drawn up at attention.
The route then led down through scenic Kole Kole pass to the U. S. Naval Ammunition Depot at Lualualei, where an unscheduled stop was made while the President alighted from his car and inspected a Negro Marine guard.
From Lualualei, the motorcade proceeded to the Naval Air Station at Barber's Point, and thence returned to Pearl Harbor, arriving back at the President's quarters at 5:00 PM.
After his return from the motor tour, the President called on Admiral and Mrs. Radford at their quarters next door. This very beautiful house, situated on the edge of Makalapa Crater, was constructed in 1942 as a home for Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, USN, then Commander in Chief, U. S. Pacific Fleet. The President returned to his quarters about 6:15 PM.
Admiral Radford had presented the President and each member of the party with brightly colored silk (Hawaiian) sport shirts. Just before dinner, the President appeared attired in slacks and his sport shirt and announced to members of the party that the "uniform of the day was slacks and a "Radford" sport shirt, and that anyone out of uniform was not to be admitted to the dining room. This sudden order sent most of the party scurrying off for a quick change. All hands made it in time and dinner was served in the President's mess at 7:00 PM.
After dinner the President met with his staff and conferred for two hours - from 8:00 to 10:00 PM - on the meeting to be held the following day with General MacArthur. An agenda had been prepared, and each item on the agenda was discussed in detail.
At 10:30 PM, the President left his quarters and motored with Mr. Elsey and Mr. Nicholson to Hickam Field, where the President boarded the INDEPENDENCE and turned in for the night.
Other members of the party, except for Mr. Elsey who remained at Pearl Harbor, boarded the CONSTELLATION and the INDEPENDENCE later in the evening and these two aircraft were airborne from Hickam Field at 11:50 PM and 12:25 AM respectively, for Wake Island. The Press plane had departed Hickam Field at 9:50 PM for Wake Island.
Embarked in the INDEPENDENCE were: The President, Mr. Ross, General Vaughan, General Graham, Mr. Romagna, Mr. Nicholson, Mr. Behn and Mr. Prettyman. In the
Page 23CONSTELLATION were: Secretary Pace, General Bradley, Mr. Harriman, Ambassador Jessup, Mr. Rusk, Mr. Murphy, Colonel Hamblen, Colonel Matthews, Major Walters, Miss Anderson, and Admiral Radford, whom the President had asked to attend the conference with General MacArthur.
Mr. William Henry, correspondent for the Mutual Broadcasting System, Mr. Roy Essoyan, correspondent for the Associated Press, and Mr. Frank Coniff, correspondent for the International News Service} joined the press party at Honolulu before their departure for Wake Island.
Precautions similar to those taken for the Fairfield-Suisun-Hickam Field flight were also taken to safeguard the President's flights between Hickam Field and Wake Island. Two destroyer escorts - the USS EPPERSON (DDE719) and the USS PHILIP (DDE498) - were stationed along the route of the flights and two Air Force rescue aircraft followed the flights. The destroyer tender USS HAMUL (AD20) and the destroyer minesweepers USS CARMICK (DMS33) and USS THOMPSON (DMS38) were on station near the approaches to Wake Island. Three P2V type aircraft (NEPTUNE) and one PBM5A type aircraft were on patrol at Wake Island. Communications between the INDEPENDENCE and the other aircraft and surface craft were excellent.
Saturday, October 14: (Sunday, October 15, at Wake Island)
At 5:27 AM.(Hawaiian time) the Presidential flight crossed the 180th Meridian (International Date Line) at 19° 20' North, and at an altitude of 18,500 feet. It was now Sunday, October 15th, East Meridian time.
The flight from Hickam Field to Wake Island was made on a direct course, at an average altitude of 18,000 feet, in eight hours and five minutes. Excellent weather and following winds prevailed.
When about an hour and a half out of Wake, the airspeed of the two aircraft was reduced in order to make good the prearranged arrival time (6:30 AM). Breakfast was served aboard the INDEPENDENCE at 5:3O AM.
The Press plane landed at Wake Island at 4:30 AM. (Wake Island time). The correspondents and photographers were escorted to the Pan American World Airways mess hall, where a portion of the building had been set aside as press headquarters. A number of Secret Service agents also arrived via the Press plane to augment the advance party which reached Wake Island the day before.
The CONSTELLATION landed at Wake Island at 6:10 AM. The INDEPENDENCE passed over Wake Island twelve minutes ahead of schedule, then made a wide circle and slow approach and put down at the Civil Aeronautics Administration air terminal, Wake Island, at exactly 6:30 AM.
Page 24As he alighted from the INDEPENDENCE, the President was met by General MacArthur, Ambassador John J. Muccio (American Ambassador to the Republic of Korea), Rear Admiral Richard H. Cruzen, USN, General Landry, members of the President's staff who had arrived on the CONSTELLATION, and several members of General MacArthur's staff. Mr. Rowley, Mr. McMullin and Major McNally of the White House advance party were also at the airport. General MacArthur strode to the foot of the landing ramp and, with hand outstretched, greeted the President. The President shook hands and remarked, "How are you, General? I'm glad you are here." There were no military honors or ceremony. General MacArthur and the officers of his staff were all tie-less in open-throated khaki shirts.
While the photographers were making their pictures, the President remarked to General MacArthur, "I have been a long time meeting you, General". General MacArthur replied:
"I hope it won't be so long next time, Mr. President."
(General MacArthur, accompanied by Ambassador Muccio, and the following members of his staff - Brigadier General Courtney Whitney (Chief of Government Section), Colonel Laurence Bunker, AUS, (Aide), and Colonel Charles C. Canada (MC) USA, (Physician) had departed Haneda Air Force Base, Tokyo, aboard the USAF CONSTELLATION "SCAP" (piloted by Lieutenant Colonel Anthony Story, USAF) at 7:06 AM (Tokyo time), Saturday, October 14th, and arrived at Wake Island at 6:10 PM (Wake Island time) the same date. Upon deplaning they were met by Rear Admiral Cruzen - who had been sent to Wake Island by Admiral Radford as his representative - and General Landry. General MacArthur and his party were billeted in the quonset living quarters of Mr. Raymond Jeffcott, Wake Island maintenance manager for the Civil Aeronautics Administration).
Following the exchange of greetings, in which both the President and General MacArthur introduced the members of their respective staffs, the President and General MacArthur entered a black 1947 model Chevrolet two-door sedan (owned by the CAA and the only passenger car on the island) and proceeded to the Jeffcott quonset, where they conferred in private for approximately one hour. In the meantime, the members of the President's party and General MacArthur's staff left the airfield and proceeded by bus to the conference building, where they awaited the arrival of the President and General MacArthur.
(The building used for the conference was a one-story flat type structure, located at the tip of the island off the main rummy and painted a pinkish coral color. It was only recently completed and is to be the new CAA communications building. For the conference a long oblong-shaped table was made by pushing five small folding tables together).
When the President and General MacArthur had concluded their private talk, they motored to the conference building, about one mile distant, where they joined their advisers, and a general conference began at 7:45 AM. Present were: The President, General MacArthur, Secretary Pace, General Bradley, Mr. Harriman, Ambassador Jessup, Mr. Rusk, Mr. Murphy, Ambassador Muccio, Mr. Ross and General Whitney.
The conference was concluded shortly after 9:00 AM and the President suggested to General MacArthur that the members of the two staffs prepare a communique and that
Page 25discussions by staff members should continue until 12 :00 o'clock, when all could join for luncheon. General MacArthur then told the President that he was anxious to get back to Tokyo as soon as possible and that he would like to leave before luncheon, if that was convenient to the President. The President then suggested that Secretary Pace and General Bradley take up right away those matters they were anxious to discuss with General MacArthur, and that if they were finished by the time the communique was completed, General MacArthur would be able to get away before luncheon, as he wished.
The formal conference thereupon ended at 9:12 AM. A working group prepared the communique, and informal discussions continued for one and one-half hours between various members of the Washington and Tokyo groups.
At 9:15 AM, the President, accompanied by General Graham, left the conference building and motored to the quonset living quarters of Mr. E. E. Swafford, Pan American World Airways manager on Wake Island, where the President rested for about an hour and a half.
At 10: 45 AM, General MacArthur and members of his staff joined the President at the Swafford quonset. The communique was presented to the President. General MacArthur and the President examined and approved the communique and it was handed to Mr. Ross for distribution to the press. The full text is quoted herewith:
"I have met with General of the Army Douglas MacArthur for the purpose of getting first-hand information and ideas from him. I did not wish to take him away from the scene of action in Korea any longer than necessary, and therefore, I came to meet him at Wake. Our conference has been highly satisfactory.
"The very complete unanimity of view which prevailed enabled us to finish our discussions rapidly in order to meet General MacArthur's desire to return at the earliest possible moment. It was apparent that the excellent coordination which has existed between Washington and the field, to which General MacArthur paid tribute, greatly facilitated the discussion.
"After I had talked with General MacArthur privately, we met together with our advisers. These joint talks were then followed by technical consultations in which the following participated: General MacArthur and Ambassador John Muccio; Mr. Averell Harriman, Special Assistant to the President; Secretary of the Army Frank Pace; General of the Army Omar N. Bradley, Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff; Admiral Arthur W. Radford, Commander-in-Chief, Pacific Fleet; Assistant Secretary of State Dean Rusk; and Ambassador at Large Philip C. Jessup.
"Primarily we talked about the problems in Korea which are General MacArthur's most pressing responsibilities. I asked him for information on the military aspects. I got from him a clear picture of the heroism and high capacity of the United Nations forces under his command. We also discussed the steps necessary to bring peace and security to the area as rapidly as possible in accordance with the intent of the resolution of the
Page 26United Nations General Assembly and in order to get our armed forces out of Korea as soon as their United Nations mission is completed.
"We devoted a good deal of time to the major problem of peaceful reconstruction of Korea which the United Nations is facing and to the solution of which we intend to make the best contribution of which the United States is capable. This is a challenging task which must be done properly, if we are to achieve the peaceful goals for which the United Nations has been fighting. The success which has attended the combined military effort must be supplemented by both spiritual and material rehabilitation. It is essentially a task of helping the Koreans to do a job which they can do for themselves better than anyone else can do it for them. The United Nations can, however, render essential help, with supplies and technical advice as well as with the vital problem of rebuilding their educational system. Meanwhile, I can say I was greatly impressed with what General MacArthur and Ambassador Muccio told me about what has already been done and is now being done to bring order out of chaos and to restore to the Korean people the chance for a good life in peace. For example, the main rail line from Inchon to Suwon was open to rail traffic in less than ten days after the Inchon landing. The rail line from Pusan to the west bank of the Han River opposite Seoul was open to one-way rail traffic about October 8th. Bridge and highway reconstruction is progressing rapidly. Power and the water supply in Seoul were reestablished within a week after the re-entry into the capital. General MacArthur paid a particularly fine tribute to the service being rendered in Korea by Ambassador Muccio.
"I asked General MacArthur also to explain at first hand his views on the future of Japan, with which I was already generally familiar through his written reports. As already announced, we are moving forward with preliminary negotiations for a peace treaty to which Japan is entitled. General MacArthur and I look forward with confidence to a new Japan which will be both peaceful and prosperous.
"I also asked General MacArthur to tell me his ideas on the ways in which the United States can most effectively promote its policies of assisting the United Nations to promote and maintain international peace and security throughout the Pacific area.
"On all of these matters, I have found our talks most helpful and I am very glad to have had this chance to talk them over with one of America's great soldier-statesmen who is also now serving in the unique position of the first Commander-in-Chief of United Nations peace forces. We are fully aware of the dangers which lie ahead but we are confident that we can surmount these dangers with three assets which we have: first, unqualified devotion to peace; second, unity with our fellow peace-loving members of the United Nations; third, our determination and growing strength.
Very shortly after the release of the communique the President and General MacArthur left the Swafford quonset and motored to the air terminal.
While at the air terminal, the President awarded General MacArthur a fourth oak leaf cluster for his Distinguished Service Medal. The citation read:
Page 27"For distinguished service to the peoples of the United States and the Republic of Korea, and to the peoples of all free nations.
"Having been designated as the first field commander of United Nations armed forces, and directed, in the common interest, to repel an armed attack upon the Republic of Korea and to restore international peace and security in the area, he has given these forces conspicuously brilliant and courageous leadership and discerning judgment of the highest order. Having been compelled to commit his troops to combat under extremely adverse conditions and against heavy odds in order to gain time so imperatively needed for the build-up of his forces for the counter-offensive, he has so inspired his command by his vision, his judgment, his indomitable will and his unshakable faith, that it has set a shining example of gallantry and tenacity in defense and of audacity in attack matched by but few operations in military history. His conduct has been in accord with the highest traditions of the military service of the United States, and is deserving of the enduring gratitude of the freedom-loving peoples of the world."
Following this presentation, the President awarded Ambassador Muccio the Medal for Merit. His citation read:
"For valor and courageous devotion to duty and superlative diplomatic skill while serving as American Ambassador to Korea during the period of unprovoked aggression against the Republic of Korea. His prompt and accurate evaluation of the situation, the dispatch and efficiency with which he accomplished the evacuation of many American citizens and his inspiring support and assistance to the Republic of Korea and to the forces of the United Nations are in the highest traditions of the Foreign Service of the United States. This citation represents the personal appreciation of the President and the gratitude of the people of the United States."
Upon completion of these presentations, the President bade General MacArthur and members of his party goodbye and then boarded the INDEPENDENCE for the return flight to Hawaii.
The INDEPENDENCE departed Wake Island at 1l:35 AM for Hickam Field; the CONSTELLATION at 11:40 AM. General MacArthur and his party left Wake Island immediately thereafter in the SCAP to return to his headquarters in Tokyo. (General MacArthur's party landed at Haneda Air Force Base at 3:59 PM (Tokyo time).
Embarked in the INDEPENDENCE: The President, Mr. Ross, General Vaughan, General Landry, General Graham, Mr. Rowley, Mr. Nicholson, Mr. Behn, Mr. Prettyman, members of the party, and Mr. W. J. Mullahey of the Pan American World Airways.
Embarked in the CONSTELLATION were: Secretary Pace, General Bradley, Mr. Harriman, Mr. Murphy, Ambassador Jessup, Mr. Rusk, Admiral Radford, Colonel Hamblen, Colonel Matthews, Major Walters, Miss Anderson, Major McNally, Mr. McMullin and Mr. Romagna.
Page 28Members of the press party remained behind until their stories had been filed; their plane departed Wake at 2:00 PM, for Hickam Field.
On departing Wake Island, the INDEPENDENCE set a direct course for Hickam Field. The flight traveled at an altitude of 19,000 feet. Strong head winds were encountered at this altitude, however, and when about midway between Wake and Hawaii, the INDEPENDENCE and CONSTELLATION descended to 17,000 feet where lesser head winds were found.
At 3:02 PM (Wake Island time, Sunday October 15) (5:02 PM Hawaiian time, Saturday, October 14) the Presidential flight crossed the International Date Line for the second time that day.
The INDEPENDENCE arrived at Hickam Field at 10: 15 PM (Hawaiian time), completing the 2334-mile voyage in eight hours and 40 minutes. The President and all members of his party disembarked and, except for Mr. Ross, left by motor for their quarters at Pearl Harbor, where they retired for the night. No military or civil honors were accorded the President on his return to Hickam. Mr. Ross remained at the airfield and discussed the Wake Island conference for about thirty minutes with representatives of the Honolulu newspapers.
The CONSTELLATION landed at Hickam Field at 10:40 PM.
Page 29WAKE ISLAND
(Latitude: 19° North; Longitude 167° West)
Wake Island is a "V-shaped" group of three islets, 2300 miles from Honolulu and 2000 miles from Tokyo. Wake proper is the body of the "V" and Wilkes and Peale are the two tips. Wake Island was originally named San Francisco in 1586 by a Spanish explorer, Alvara de Mendana. Later, it was renamed the Wake Atoll by Captain Wake, master of a British trading schooner when he officially discovered this island in 1798. However, no one laid particular claim to the barren atoll until December 1840, when Charles Wilkes of the U. S. Navy made an exploration and took possession in the name of the United States.
It has a land mass of 2600 acres of sand and coral which nowhere rises more than 21 feet above sea level. The island possesses very little vegetation except for some heavy brush. It depends for its water upon the rains and mechanical distillation. It has an excellent climate, with an average temperature of 85°. All foodstuffs are shipped in by air.
Wake Island is under the jurisdiction of the Civil Aeronautics Administration. There are no hotels located on the island but only a few functional quonset huts and utility buildings which are used to house CAA and Pan American employees.
Its potential military value and strategic location were first recognized in 1935 when the Pan American Airways selected the island as an intermediate base for their Philippine run.
Wake was occupied by the Japanese from December 23, 194l, until the end of World
The Pan American Airways resumed their service on this island on September 16, 1946. It is now also used as a refueling stop on one of the routes of the Korean airlift - the world's biggest and longest military air operation - operated by the Military Air Transport Service. Pan American personnel on the island totaled approximately 145, of which 100 were laborers who were British subjects imported from the Gilbert and Marshall Islands.
In order to provide for the security of the island while the President was there, Admiral Radford sent the following units to Wake Island: USS HAMUL (AD20), destroyer tender; USS CARMICK (DMS33), destroyer minesweeper; USS THOMPSON (DMS38), destroyer minesweeper; four patrol aircraft; and a Marine detail of 20 men under the command of Captain O. G. Jackson, USMC. Surface and air patrols were maintained by the Naval units and the Marine guard assisted the members of the Secret Service in guarding the President.
Page 30Communications on the island were taxed to the utmost because of the conference. There were only three teletype circuits available to Honolulu. One circuit was used for official traffic; one for press traffic; and the third for voice and radio photo transmission. Because of these limitations, the three press associations (AP, UP and INS) were required to file a pooled account of the meeting, as were the special correspondents. To assist the CAA communications personnel, Admiral Radford sent to Wake seven of his best radio technicians - (Chief Radiomen C. E. Valenti and H. L. Hendricks; Chief Communications Technicians R. L. Hynson, M. R. Rockliff, and W. L. Kroeger; Chief Teleman V. Mellblom; and Radioman Second class D. M. Beattie).
Sunday, October 15:
The press plane arrived at Hickam Field at 1:15 AM.
The President arose early and at 7:00 AM left his quarters for a walk around the Makalapa area and down into the Makalapa Crater. He returned to his quarters at 7:3O AM
Breakfast was served in the President's mess at 9:00 AM for those who were able to get up that early. At the breakfast table, the President wrote and had sent two messages to Washington: one to the Secretary of State, reporting on the meeting at Wake and the other to Rear Admiral Dennison, who was a patient at the Naval Hospital, Bethesda, Maryland, expressing hopes for an early recovery.
General Vaughan left his quarters at 10:00 AM for the Punchbowl Memorial Cemetery - a National Cemetery - where a memorial service was held by two local Veterans organizations. General Vaughan presented a wreath in the name of the President and made brief remarks to the audience of approximately one thousand persons - relatives and friends of veterans of the 442nd Infantry Regiment. Most of the members of this Regiment were of Japanese descent.
Although the President was scheduled to leave his quarters at 11:00 o'clock on a motor tour, the pleasant weather enticed him to leave earlier and he entered his car at 10:3O AM. After some scramble, the Secret Service rounded up the other members of the party and the group then left Pearl Harbor for a drive through Honolulu, over the scenic Nuuanu Pali, to Kailua Beach. The route followed was via Kamehameha Highway to Dillingham Boulevard, along Dillingham Boulevard and King Street to Nuuanu Avenue, up Nuuanu Valley and over the Pali, and thence via Kailua Road to Kailua Beach. In the climb up the steep mountain road to the Pali, it began to rain and the tops of all convertibles had to be raised. Mr. Elsey, who had bet the President fifty cents that it would not rain, contended that there was merely a heavy mist in the air. The other members of the party, however, with no justification whatever - so said Mr. Elsey - claimed that it was raining. The majority ruled, and Mr. Elsey lost his fifty cents. The rain stopped just as the motorcade reached the summit, 2000 feet above sea level.
At the Pali, the President and all members of the party left their cars in order to get a better view of the magnificent scenery. The Nuuanu Pali, a gap in the Koolau Mountain Range at the end of Nuuanu Valley, is Oahu's most famous scenic view. At this point the visitor has an
Page 31unparalleled view of Windward Oahu. It was at this spot that King Kamehameha the Great drove the defending Oahu army over the precipice when he conquered the Island of Oahu in 1795.
The Presidential party arrived at the Kailua Beach Club at 11:30 AM. Losing no time, the President changed to swimming trunks and entered the water almost immediately and swam and enjoyed the sun on the wide, white coral sand beach, until 1:00 PM. With the President and members of his party at the beach were Admiral Radford, Colonel Williams, Colonel Chester C. Moomaw, USAF (Pilot of the CONSTELLATION), Commander O'Grady and Commander William C. Mott, USN. The beach was policed by the Secret Service and a Marine guard. A life boat was manned by naval and Secret Service personnel, and two Navy crash boats operated about 1/4 mile offshore to keep small craft clear of the beach area.
The members of the press party swam at a nearby beach - at the Kamehameha School Faculty Club Beach.
After their swim, the members of the press party were invited over to the Kailua Beach Club to join the President's party. Luncheon was served at 1:30 PM. Additional guests at the luncheon included Governor Stainback, Mayor Wilson, Colonel Kent (Principal of the Kamehameha School), Mr. Frank Midkiff, Mr. W. E. Kline, Regional Administrator for the CAA, General Aurand, General Shepherd, Admiral McMorris and Admiral Gingrich.
The motorcade left Kailua at 2:20 PM for a drive around the northwestern tip of Oahu, proceeding along Kalanianaole Highway to Waimanalo and through the pass of Koko Head. At the Blow Hole, the President alighted from his car and waited patiently for about ten minutes for an opportunity to observe the spectacle of the spray blowing over 40 feet in the air through a small hole in one of the rocks at the water's edge. However, the surf refused to behave properly and he saw nothing; but faint wisps of vapor from the hole. Molokai Island was visible from that vantage point, and the President looked at it through his binoculars while Mayor Wilson explained what the Blow Hole does at its best. "I'm afraid it just didn't know you 'were coming today, Mr. President", Mayor Wilson finally told him.
After leaving the Blow Hole, the motorcade proceeded along Diamond Head Road, Kalakaua Avenue, Kapiolani Boulevard to King Street. On reaching King Street, a deviation was made from the planned route to permit the President to pay a visit to Punchbowl Memorial Cemetery.
From the cemetery, the motorcade returned to King Street and then toured the northern part of the city, proceeding along King Street, Dillingham Boulevard and Kamehameha Boulevard, and then returned to the Presidential quarters at Makalapa, reaching there at 4:30 PM. The streets of Honolulu were lined with people who had turned out to see the President. Mayor Wilson was with the President during his drive through the City of Honolulu.
When the motorcade reached Makalapa, the President shook hands with and personally thanked the members of the police escort and motorcycle detail who had assisted in his tours, for the efficiency with which they had performed the traffic escort service during his tours of Friday and Sunday.
Page 32At 6:00 PM, the President and all members of his party called informally on Admiral and Mrs. Radford at their quarters. They returned to their respective quarters at 7:15 PM.
Dinner was served in the President's mess at 7:30 PM. After dinner the President gathered his staff and they worked on the speech he was scheduled to deliver in San Francisco two days later. The President read the speech aloud and a lively discussion continued on the details of the speech for nearly two hours.
During the evening there were on display in the President's quarters a number of handicraft products made by natives of the Trust Territories of the Pacific and of the Hawaiian Islands. Members of the party selected a wide variety of goods to take home, ranging from utilitarian table mats and wooden bowls to brightly colored grass skirts, which may or may not be thought to have utilitarian value.
While in Hawaii the President received a number of gifts. The donors included Governor Stainback, Admiral and Mrs. Radford , and the Honolulu Chamber of Commerce. The following is a partial list of the gifts received: a large model of an outrigger canoe; a number of carved wooden bowls and platters; a set of woven table mats; small woven handbags for Mrs. Truman and Miss Truman; a number of sport shirts; several books about Hawaii; photographs of Pearl Harbor, naval vessels, and the Hawaiian Islands; several boxes of fresh Hawaiian flowers for Mrs. Truman.
The President also received a message of good wishes from Mr. Tong Lao, Consul General of China, on behalf of all the Consular Representatives in Hawaii. Twelve countries maintain consulates in Hawaii.
The automobile used by the President while he was in Hawaii (a gray Lincoln convertible) was loaned by Mr. Victor G. Sorrell, 4476 Kahala Avenue, Honolulu.
Monday, October 16:
Reveille for members of the President's party was held at 5:15 AM.
The President and members of his party left Makalapa by auto at 6:10 AM for Hickam Field, where they arrived at 6:25 AM. Admiral Radford, General Aurand, General Shepherd and Colonel Tillery were on hand to bid the President Aloha. After a brief exchange of pleasantries and formalities, the President and members of his party boarded their respective planes. No honors were rendered due to the early hour of the departure.
The INDEPENDENCE was airborne from Hickam Field at 6:30 AM, for San Francisco; the CONSTELLATION at 6:35 AM. The Press plane had departed at 4:15 AM. Embarked in the INDEPENDENCE were: The President, Mr. Ross, General Vaughan, General Landry, General Graham, Mr. Rowley, Mr. Nicholson, Mr. Behn, Mr. Kellerman, Mr. Romagna and Mr. Prettyman. In the CONSTELIAATION: Secretary Pace, General Bradley, Mr. Harriman, Mr.
Page 33Murphy, Ambassador Jessup, Mr. Rusk, Mr. Elsey, Colonel Hamblen, Colonel Matthews, Major Walters, Miss Anderson, members of the official party; and Mr. Robert G. Nixon, correspondent for the International News Service. Mr. Nixon had been at the hospital for medical treatment and missed the press plane when it departed for San Francisco.
The INDEPENDENCE cruised at an altitude of 17,000 feet. Good weather and favorable winds prevailed along the entire flight to the mainland. The same surface vessels and rescue aircraft as for the outward passage were on station.
As the Presidential flight approached the coast of California, the flight was intercepted and escorted for a distance by a number of Air Force jet fighters.
The INDEPENDENCE put down at the Municipal Airport in San Francisco at 5:00 PM (PST), completing a flight of 2440 miles in eight hours and 30 minutes. The CONSTELLATION arrived at 5:05 PM; the Press plane at 5:50 PM.
The President was greeted on his arrival in San Francisco by the Vice President, who was on the West Coast on a political speaking tour; Honorable Elmer E. Robinson, Mayor of San Francisco; Honorable Dan A. Kimball, Under Secretary of the Navy; Mr. Paul A. Bissinger, President of the San Francisco Chamber of Commerce; Mr. George A. Killion, President of the American Steamship Lines; Honorable Matthew J. Connelly, Secretary to the President; Honorable Donald S. Dawson, Administrative Assistant to the President; and David E. Bell of the White House Staff. The President had asked Hr. Murphy to send word from Hawaii that Mr. Bell should join the staff in San Francisco to work on the final draft of the San Francisco speech.
After an exchange of greetings, the President, members of his party and the reception committee embarked in motor cars and the fifteen-car motorcade left for the Fairmont Hotel, where they resided during their stay in San Francisco. The motorcade coursed through eight miles of crowded streets. It passed through the Mission District, the retail business district, along the edge of Chinatown, and on to the hotel on Nob Hill, where it arrived at 6:00 Rd.
The President dined in his hotel suite. After dinner he assembled his staff and they worked on the speech he was scheduled to deliver the following evening. Except for Lieutenant General A. C. Wedemeyer, USA, and Vice Admiral George D. Murray, USN (Commander Western Sea Frontier), who paid official calls, the President had only one caller this evening - Federal Judge Homer T. Bone, an old friend and former Senator from Washington. The President retired at 11:00 PM.
Tuesday, October 17:
After a breakfast of "pancakes Oscar", a specialty of the Fairmont, the President left the hotel and took a walk about the neighborhood of the hotel. He was accompanied by several Secret Service agents. Upon his return from the walk, he retired to his hotel suite where he remained all day, working on his speech and other official papers that had been brought out from Washington. He had no appointments. During the afternoon First Lieutenant William H.
Page 34Lanagan, USMC, a former White House Aide, now stationed at Stanford University, called informally and paid his respects to the President.
The President was invited by Mayor Robinson to visit the Shriners Hospital for Crippled Children but he delegated this duty to General Graham. General Graham also visited the Army's Letterman General Hospital.
After an early dinner in his hotel suite, the President, accompanied by members of his party, left the Fairmont Hotel and motored to the War Memorial Opera House, where he delivered a major address to a capacity audience of 3500. The President was introduced by Mayor Robinson. He spoke from the same platform where in 1945 he had witnessed the signing of the Charter of the United Nations. On stage with the President were: Mayor Robinson, Attorney General McGrath, Secretary Pace, General Bradley, Mr. Harriman, Mr. Kimball, Ambassador Jessup and Mr. Rusk. Governor and Mrs. Warren, and their two daughters were in the boxes. (Mayor Robinson had arranged to have the opening of the opera "The Magic Flute" delayed one night so as to accommodate the President this evening). See Annex "A" for text of the President's speech.
The President's speech was broadcast nationwide. The State Department's "Voice of America" broadcast it over 52 transmitters and summaries of it in 26 languages, including two Chinese dialects (Mandarin and Cantonese).
After the conclusion of the speech, the President and members of his party motored to the Municipal Airport, where they embarked in their respective aircraft. The INDEPENDENCE and the CONSTELLATION took off simultaneously at 10:l5 PM, for Washington, D. C. The Press plane departed San Francisco at 10:47 PM.
Embarked in the INDEPENDENCE were : The President, Mr. Ross, General Vaughan, General Landry, General Graham, Mr. Connelly, Mr. Dawson, Mr. Murphy, Mr. Rowley, Mr. Nicholson, Mr. Romagna and Mr. Prettyman. Embarked in the CONSTELLATION were: Secretary Pace, General Bradley, Mr. Harriman, Ambassador Jessup, Mr. Rusk, Mr. Elsey, Mr. Bell, Colonel Hamblen, Colonel Matthews, Major Walters and Miss Anderson.
The flight to Washington was made at a cruising altitude of 19,000 feet, on a direct course, via Salt Lake City, Cheyenne and Omaha.
The President went forward as the flight was passing Sacramento, California, inquired of the crew as to the route to be followed and other flight information. He then returned to his compartment and retired for the night.
Wednesday, October 18:
Breakfast was served aloft at 8: 00 AM (EST), an hour before the scheduled time of arrival in Washington. The weather had been good and winds favorable enroute.
Page 35As the flight approached Washington, however, it became evident from weather reports received enroute that the ceiling and visibility at the Washington National Airport would be below safe minimums at the estimated time of arrival (8:55 AM). The weather forecast for Washington indicated that a landing could be made at 9:30 AM, so the ground speed of the flight was accordingly reduced. However, upon arrival over Washington at 9:40 AM, the ceiling and visibility were still below minimum, and the flight continued on to Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland, 14 miles distant from Washington, where the weather was satisfactory for landing.
The CONSTELLATION landed at Andrews Field at 9:55 AM; the INDEPENDENCE at 10: 05 AM. The President was met by Rear Admiral John P. Whitney, USN, Vice Commander of the Military Air Transport Service, and Colonel Robert A. Gardner, Base Commander of Andrews Air Force Base. The Press plane arrived at Washington at 11: 15 AM.
Mrs. Truman, Secretary of State Acheson, Secretary of Defense Marshall, Secretary of the Treasury Snyder, the Secret Service detail and others of the official party who had been waiting at the Washington National Airport, got last-minute word of the change in plans and made a mile-a-minute dash through the city of Washington in a 37-car motorcade escorted by motorcycle policemen. They arrived at Andrews Field five minutes after the President had landed. The President had been informed of their coming so he awaited them. The President greeted Mrs. Truman and members of the official party, and shortly thereafter left by motor with Mrs. Truman for the Blair House.
Page 36SPEECH OF THE PRESIDENT AT SAN FRANCISCO
MAYOR ROBINSON, FELLOW CITIZENS:
I have just returned from Wake Island, where I had a very satisfactory conference with General Douglas MacArthur.
I understand that there has been speculation about why I made this trip. There is really no mystery about it. I went because I wanted to see and talk to General MacArthur. The best way to see him and talk to him is to meet him somewhere and talk to him.
There is no substitute for personal conversation with the commander in the field, who knows the problems there from firsthand experience. He has information at his fingertips which can be of help to all of us in deciding upon the right policies in these critical times.
I went out to Wake Island to see General MacArthur because I did not want to take him far away from Korea, where he is conducting very important operations with great success. Events are moving swiftly over there now, and I did not feel that he should be away from his post too long.
At the same time I believed my trip to Wake Island would give emphasis to the historic action taken by the United Nations on Korea. For Korea has become the symbol of the resistance of a united humanity against aggression.
I also felt that there was pressing need to make it perfectly clear - by my talk with General MacArthur - that there is complete unity in the aims and conduct of our foreign policy.
I have come back from this conference with increased confidence in our long-range ability to maintain world peace.
At Wake Island we talked over the Far Eastern situation and its relationship to the problem of world peace. I asked General MacArthur for his ideas on the ways in which the United States can most effectively assist the United Nations in promoting and maintaining peace and security throughout the Pacific area.
We discussed Japan and the need for an early Japanese peace treaty. Both of us look forward with confidence to a new Japan which will be peaceful and prosperous.
General MacArthur told me about the fighting in Korea. He described the magnificent achievements of all the United Nations forces serving under his command. Along with the soldiers of the Republic of Korea these forces have now turned back the tide of aggression.
Page 37More fighting men are coming from free nations all over the world. I am confident that these forces will soon restore peace to the whole of Korea.
We here at home in America naturally take special pride in the superb achievements of our soldiers, sailors, marines and airmen. They have written a glorious new page in military history. We can all be proud of them.
It is also a source of pride to us that our country was asked to furnish the first commander of United Nations' troops. It is fortunate for the world that we had the right man for this purpose - a man who is a very great soldier - General Douglas MacArthur.
Now I want Wake Island to be a symbol of our unity of purpose for world peace. I want to see world peace from Wake Island west all the way around and back again. I want to see world peace from Wake Island all the way east and back again and we are going to get it!
The United Nations action in Korea is of supreme importance for all the peoples of the world.
For the first time in history the nations who want peace have taken up arms under the banner of an international organization to put down aggression. Under that banner, the banner of the United Nations, they are succeeding. This is a tremendous step forward in the age-old struggle to establish the rule of law in the world.
The people of San. Francisco have shown that they appreciate the importance of the United Nations as a vital force in world affairs. I am told that in this area alone seventy-one organizations are celebrating United Nations week.
The United Nations was established here in this very building five years ago. It was founded in the hope and in the belief that mankind could have just and lasting peace. And I made the first speech to that organization that was made to it after the Charter was signed.
Today as a result of the Korean struggle the United Nations is stronger than it has ever been. We know now that the United Nations can create a system of international order with the authority to maintain peace.
When I met with General MacArthur we discussed plans for completing the task of bringing peace to Korea. We talked about the plan for establishing a "unified, independent, and democratic" government in that country in accordance with the resolution of the General Assembly of the United Nations.
It has been our policy ever since World War II to achieve these results for Korea.
Our sole purpose in Korea is to establish peace and independence. Our troops will stay there only so long as they are needed by the United Nations for that purpose. We seek no territory or special privilege in Korea or anywhere else. We have no aggressive designs in Korea
Page 38or in any other place in the Far East or elsewhere. And I want that to be perfectly clear to the whole world.
No country in the world which really wants peace has any reason to fear the United States of America.
The only victory we seek is the victory of peace.
The United Nations forces in Korea are making a spectacular progress. But the fighting there is not yet over. The North Korean communists still refuse to acknowledge the authority of the United Nations. They continue to put up stubborn, but futile, resistance.
The United Nations forces are growing in strength and are now far superior to the forces which still oppose them. The power of the Korean communists to resist effectively will soon come to an end.
However, the job of the United Nations in Korea will not end when the fighting stops. There is a big task of rehabilitation to be done. As a result of the communist aggression Korea has suffered terrible destruction. Thousands upon thousands of people are homeless and there is serious danger of famine and disease in the coming winter months.
The United Nations is already extending relief to ease the suffering which the communist invasion has brought about and it is preparing to help the Koreans rebuild their homes and restore their factories.
General MacArthur and Ambassador Muccio gave me a vivid picture of the way in which the process of reconstruction has already begun. Railroads are being restored, bridges are being rebuilt, and public utilities are beginning to function.
We will use the resources of our army and our Economic Cooperative Administration to meet the immediate emergency. We will give our strong support to the United Nations program of relief and reconstruction that will soon be started. The United States will do its full part to help build a free, united and self-supporting Korean Republic.
In a very real sense the unity of the free nations in meeting the aggression in Korea is the result of a firmly held purpose to support peace and freedom - a purpose which the free nations have pursued together over the years just passed.
The name "United Nations" was first used in the dark days of the second world war by the countries then allied to put down another aggression.
From that day until this, the cause of peace has been strengthened by an active policy of cooperation among the free nations. It is not by chance, but as a result of that steady policy, that fifty-three members of the United Nations rallied immediately to meet the unprovoked aggression against the Republic of Korea.
Page 39It has been as a part of that same policy and common purpose that we have joined during the past five years in building up the strength of the peace-loving forces of the world. We have contributed to this through the Marshall Plan in Europe, through economic assistance in many other parts of the world. We have also contributed to this end through military aid to countries threatened by aggression. All around the world the free nations have been gaining strength.
We have to recognize that, as we have moved steadily along in the post-war years, our policy of building a peaceful world has met constant opposition from the Soviet Union.
Here, in San Francisco, five years ago, we hoped that the Soviet Union would cooperate in this effort to build a lasting peace.
But communist imperialism would not have it so. Instead of working with other governments in mutual respect and cooperation, the Soviet Union attempted to extend its control over other peoples. It embarked on a new colonialism - Soviet style. This new colonialism has already brought under its complete control and exploitation many countries which used to be free countries. Moreover, the Soviet Union has refused to cooperate and has not allowed its satellites to cooperate with those nations it could not control.
In the United Nations, the Soviet Union has persisted in obstruction. It has refused to share in activities devoted to the great economic, social, and spiritual causes recognized in the United Nations Charter. For months on end, it even boycotted the Security Council.
These tactics of the Soviet Union have imposed an increasingly greater strain upon the fabric of world peace. Aggression and threats of aggression, aided and abetted by obstructionism in the United Nations, have caused grave concern among the nations which are honestly seeking peace. The response of the free world to the aggression in Korea has given those nations new confidence. But events in Korea have also made it more apparent than ever that the evil spirit of aggression is still abroad in the world. So long as this is true, we are all faced with a clear and present danger.
Today, we face a violent and cynical attack upon our democratic faith, upon every hope of a decent and free life - indeed, upon every concept of human dignity. Those who support this evil purpose are prepared to back it to the limit with every device, including unlawful military force.
The Soviet Union and its colonial satellites are maintaining armed forces of great size and strength. In both Europe and Asia, their vast armies pose a constant threat to world peace. So long as they persist in maintaining these forces and in using them to intimidate other countries, the free men of the world have but one choice if they are to remain free. They must oppose strength with strength.
This is not a task for the United States alone. It is a task for the free nations to undertake together. And the free nations are undertaking it together.
Page 40In the United Nations, Secretary of State Dean Acheson has proposed a plan for "Uniting for Peace", to make it possible for the General Assembly to act quickly and effectively in case of any further outbreak of aggression.
In our own country, and in cooperation with other countries, we are continuing to build armed forces strong enough to make it clear that aggression will not pay.
Our military establishment moved the necessary men and supplies into Korea, five thousand miles away, in an amazingly brief period of time. This remarkable accomplishment should not delude us into any false sense of security. We must be better armed and better equipped than we are today if we are to be protected from the dangers which still face us.
We must continue to increase our production for military purposes. We must continue to increase the strength of our armed forces - Army, Navy, and Air Force. We must devote more of our resources to military purposes, and less to civilian consumption.
All this will be difficult, and it will exact many great sacrifices. But we are aware of the dangers we face. We are going to be prepared to meet them. Now, let no aggressor make any mistake about that. We value our independence and our free way of life in this country and we will give all that we have to preserve them. We are going ahead in dead earnest to build up our defenses. There will be no let-down because of the successes achieved in Korea.
As we go forward, let us remember that we are not increasing our armed strength because we want to. We are increasing our armed strength because Soviet policies leave us no other choice.
Now, the Soviet Union can change this situation. It has only to give concrete and positive proof of its intention to work for peace. If the Soviet Union really wants peace, it must prove it - not by glittering promises and false propaganda, but by living up to the principles of the United Nations Charter.
If the Soviet Union really wants peace, it can prove it - and could have proved it on any day since last June 25th - by joining the rest of the United Nations in calling upon the North Koreans to lay down their arms at once.
If the Soviet Union really wants peace, it can prove it by lifting the Iron Curtain and permitting the free exchange of information and ideas. If the Soviet Union really wants peace, it can prove it by joining in the efforts of the United Nations to establish a workable system of collective security - a system which will permit the elimination of the atomic bomb and the drastic reduction and regulation of all other arms and armed forces.
But until the Soviet Union does these things, until it gives real proof of peaceful intentions, we are determined to build up the common defensive strength of the free world. This is the choice we have made. We have made it firmly and resolutely. But it is not a choice we have made gladly. We are not a militaristic nation. We have no desire for conquest or military glory.
Page 41Our national history began with a revolutionary idea - the idea of human freedom and political equality. We have been guided by the light of that idea down to this day. The forces of communist imperialism dread this revolutionary idea because it produces an intolerable contrast to their own system. They know that our strength comes from the freedom and the well-being of ourver stop working for better education for all our people, for fair wages and better living conditions, for more opportunities for business and better lives for our fanners. We are strong because of our social security system, because of our labor unions, because of our agricultural program. We are strong because we use our democratic institutions continually to achieve a better life for all the people of our country.
This is the source of our strength. And this idea - this endlessly revolutionary idea of human freedom and political equality - is what we held out to all nations as the answer to the tyranny of international communism. We have seen this idea work in our own country. We know that it acknowledges no barriers of race, or nation: or creed. We know that it means progress for all men.
The international communist movement, far from being revolutionary, is the most reactionary movement in the world today. It is violently opposed to the freedom of the individual, because in that communist system the state is supreme. It is equally opposed to the freedom of other nations, because in that communist system it is Soviet Russia which must be supreme.
When General MacArthur and I discussed the whole problem of peace in the Far East, we recognized that this is far more than a military problem.
Today, the peoples of the Far East, as well as the peoples of the other parts of the world, are struggling with the false revolution of communism. Soviet communism makes the false claim to those peoples that it stands for progress and human advancement. Actually, it seeks to turn them into the colonial slaves of a new imperialism. In this time of crisis, we ask the peoples of the Far East to understand us as we try to understand them. We are not trying to push blueprints upon them as ready-made answers for all their complicated problems. Every people must develop according to its own particular genius and must express its own moral and cultural values in its own way.
We believe that we have much in common with the peoples of the Far East. Their older civilizations have much to teach us. We hope our new developments may be helpful to them.
We know that the peoples of Asia cherish their freedom and independence. We sympathize with that desire and we will help to attain and defend their independence. Our entire history proclaims our policy on that point. Our men are fighting now in Asia to help secure the freedom and independence of a small nation which was brutally attacked.
We know that the peoples of Asia have problems of social injustice to solve. They want their farmers to own their land and to enjoy the fruits of their toil. That is one of our great national principles also. We believe in the family-size farm. That is the basis of our agriculture and has strongly influenced our form of government.
Page 42We know that the peoples of Asia want their industrial workers to have their full measure of freedom and rising standards of living. So do we. That is the basis of our industrial society in this country.
We know that the peoples of Asia have problems of production; they need to produce more food and clothing and shelter. It is in this field that we can make a special contribution by sharing with others the productive techniques which we have discovered in our own experience.
We are not strangers to the Far East. For more than a century our missionaries, doctors, teachers, traders and businessmen have knit many ties of friendship between us. If we can be of help, we are ready to offer it - but only to those who want it. Through the Economic Cooperation Administration, Point Four, and in many other ways we are trying to help the peoples of other countries to improve their living standards. We will continue these programs in cooperation with the United Nations. Even as we undertake the necessary burdens of defense against aggression, we will help to expand the work of aiding human progress. Otherwise, measures of defense alone will have little or no value.
We seek full partnership with the peoples of Asia, as with all other peoples, in the defense and support of the ideals which we and they have written into the charter of the United Nations. All we want is a partnership for peace.
I have spoken to you tonight about some of the things which all of us are thinking about as we push ahead to finish our job in Korea. At a time when our forces under General MacArthur are locked in combat with a stubborn enemy, it is essential for us to understand what our broad purposes are and see clearly the kind of world we seek to build. As your President, I realize what it means to the homes of America to have the youth of our land called to meet aggression. These are the most solemn decisions and impose the heaviest responsibility upon those who must make them. I have told you tonight why we must do what we are doing. We hate war, but we love our liberties. We will not see them destroyed. We want peace but it must be a peace founded upon justice. All we want is a partnership for peace with all the world. Our American policy of peace, which was founded upon justice, is as old as this Republic, and it is stronger today than ever before in our history. And with Gods help we intend to keep it that way.
Return to President Truman's Travel Logs